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colors="#fdf5d9"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFFFCC" background="ateotw_episode1_files/image002.jpg" lang=EN-GB link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval:36.0pt'> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <v:background id="_x0000_s1025" o:bwmode="white" fillcolor="#ffc"> <v:fill src="ateotw_episode1_files/image002.jpg" o:title="Parchment" type="tile"/> </v:background></xml><![endif]--> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style='margin-left:13.7pt;border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:none;mso-border-insidev: none'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;height:12.75pt'> <td width=274 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:205.35pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:-4.3pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-add-space: auto;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>&lt;&lt; <a href="ateotw_pilot.html">Go to Pilot Episode</a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> <td width=274 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:205.35pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle align=center style='margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:-4.15pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="ateotw.html">Return to 'At The Edge Of The World' Episode Index</a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> <td width=274 valign=top style='width:205.4pt;border:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpLast align=right style='margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:54.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto;text-align:right;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="ateotw_episode2.html">Go to Episode 2</a> &gt;&gt;<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;height:12.75pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraph align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom: .0001pt;mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center;text-indent:-18.0pt;line-height: normal;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'><img width=22 height=35 src="ateotw_episode1_files/image001.jpg" alt="*"><span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span></span></span></span><![endif]><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>At the edge of the world  Episode 1<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></span></b><span style='mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" 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v:shapes="Picture_x0020_6"><![endif]></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2;height:12.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:3;height:14.1pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=bottom style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:14.1pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'><a href="http://youtu.be/LTPs8eMt5e4"><span style='color:black;mso-themecolor: text1'>Watch this episode in our YouTube channel</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:4'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:5'> <td width=538 colspan=3 valign=top style='width:403.5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <iframe width=560 height=315 src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/LTPs8eMt5e4" frameborder=0 allowfullscreen> </iframe> </td> <td width=283 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:212.6pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: EN-GB'>1086: William the Conqueror's <span class=SpellE>Domesday</span> Court<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'>This opening episode is a resume of what we'll be talking about in the hundred Episodes that follow, starting backwards in 1086: William the Conqueror's <span class=SpellE>Domesday</span> Book.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Duties and responsibilities, who owned the <span class=GramE>land</span>?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Why <span class=GramE>is this documentary</span> entitled, 'At the Edge of the World'?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It is like a Hollywood epic, with popes, kings, queens, bishops, saints, sinners, pirates. <span class=GramE>rapists</span>, murderers, holy men and women, traders in miracles.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'>Written and presented by Robert Smith, Chairman of the Manorial Society of Great Britain - <span style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'><a href="index.html"><span style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'>www.msgb.co.uk</span></a></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language: EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:6;height:20.4pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:20.4pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:7;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:8;height:16.5pt'> <td width=134 valign=top style='width:100.3pt;border:none;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-right-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Credits:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Written and presented by<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Robert Smith<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Voice over<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Barney Powell<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Rebecca Cooper<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Music production &amp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Original music<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Simon Roberts<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>(Lyric media group)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Original film footage<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Picture editor<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Roberto <span class=SpellE>Ekholm</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Asst picture editor<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Guilfre</span></span><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> Jordan<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Associate Producer<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Producer<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Antonio <span class=SpellE>Parente</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td width=688 colspan=4 valign=top style='width:515.8pt;border:none; mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Picture sources:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Live footage filmed by Ian Phillips <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>William the Conqueror, <a href="http://globallearning.pwnet.org/images/WilliamtheConqueror">http://globallearning.pwnet.org/images/WilliamtheConqueror</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Posthumous portrait of Christopher Columbus by <span class=SpellE>Sebastiano</span> del <span class=SpellE>Piombo</span> (1485 1547). There are no known authentic portraits of Columbus <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Columbus">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Columbus</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Gaius Cornelius Tacitus.jpg <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.orgwikiFile:Gaius_Cornelius_Tacitus">http://commons.wikimedia.orgwikiFile:Gaius_Cornelius_Tacitus</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>An early Baroque artist's rendition of Claudius <span class=SpellE>Ptolemaeus</span>  <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Pledging fealty; from a manuscript of a chanson de <span class=SpellE>geste</span>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rolandfealty.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rolandfealty.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>The 'Tusculum portrait', one of two surviving busts of Julius Caesar made during his lifetime - photo by <span class=SpellE>Tataryn</span> 77. Picture and data courtesy of the <span class=SpellE>Yorck</span> Project, under Creative Commons Attribution-Share- <span class=GramE>Alike</span> License (Wikipedia).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>The St Petersburg Bede (St Petersburg, National Library of Russia, lat. Q. v. I. 18), formerly known as the Leningrad Bede, is an early surviving illuminated manuscript of Bede's 8th century history, '<span class=SpellE>Historia</span> <span class=SpellE>ecclesiastica</span> <span class=SpellE>gentis</span> <span class=SpellE>Anglorum</span>' (Ecclesiastical History of the English People). Although not heavily illuminated, it is famous for containing the earliest <span class=SpellE>historiated</span> initial (one containing a picture) in European illumination. The opening three letters of Book 2 of Bede are decorated, to a height of 8 lines of the text, and the opening contains a bust portrait of a haloed figure carrying a cross and a book<span class=GramE>.[</span>1] This is probably intended to be St Gregory the Great, although a much later hand has identified the figure as St Augustine of Canterbury. Wiki -<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Petersburg_Bede">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Petersburg_Bede</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Edward the Confessor, King of England 1042-1066, Bayeux Tapestry Deutsch: Edward <span class=SpellE>der</span> <span class=SpellE>Bekenner</span>, <span class=SpellE>Knig</span> von England 1042-1066, <span class=SpellE>Teppich</span> von Bayeux, 1066, <span class=SpellE>Stdtisches</span> Museum in Bayeux<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Edward_der_Bekenner.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Edward_der_Bekenner.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>William the Conqueror<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://globallearning.pwnet.org/images/WilliamtheConqueror.jpg">http://globallearning.pwnet.org/images/WilliamtheConqueror.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Death of King Harold II at the Battle of Hastings, 1066. Detail of the Bayeux Tapestry  11th century; by special permission of the City of Bayeux  <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>National Archive  Wiki<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Men harvesting.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Anglo-Saxon calendar, 11th century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>By permission of The British Library.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Cotton Tiberius B. V, Part 1<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Page from <span class=SpellE>Domesday</span> Book for Warwickshire, including listing of Birmingham - <u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Domesday_Book_-_Warwickshire.png">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Domesday_Book_-_Warwickshire.png</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>The Day of Judgment or  Doomsday after which <span class=SpellE>Domesday</span> Book may have been named. From a late 13th-century <span class=SpellE>psalter</span> BL Additional MS 38116 f.1v; by permission British Library  National Archives<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>The St Petersburg Bede (St Petersburg, National Library of Russia, lat. Q. v. I. 18), details above<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Duke William comes to Bayeux, from the Bayeux Tapestry<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayeux_Tapestry_tituli">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayeux_Tapestry_tituli</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Footage by Ian Phillips of Senlac, site of the Battle of Hastings, upon which was built Battle Abbey<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Wolves in the snow  URL: <a href="http://www.firstpeople.us/">http://www.firstpeople.us/</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>The 'Tusculum' bust of Julius Caesar; for details see above<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Author: Wikipedia user <span class=SpellE>MatthiasKabel</span>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Description: Roman soldiers c AD70 with <span class=SpellE>centurio</span>, <span class=SpellE>aquilifer</span>, <span class=SpellE>signifer</span>, <span class=SpellE>cornicen</span>. Photo taken during a show of the <span class=SpellE>XVth</span> Legion from Pram, Austria - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Roman_soldiers_with_aquilifer_signifer_centurio_70_aC.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Roman_soldiers_with_aquilifer_signifer_centurio_70_aC.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Euro-Asian land mass from a satellite  National Aeronautical and Space Administration, <span class=SpellE>Nasa</span> (United States) by permission of the Federal Government <a href="http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view.php?id=74142">http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view.php?id=74142</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>A printed map from the 15th century depicting Claudius Ptolemy's description of the <span class=SpellE>Ecumene</span>, (1482, Johannes <span class=SpellE>Schnitzer</span>, engraver). Claudius Ptolemy, cartographer. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Representation of Christopher Columbus making landfall in the New World (island of Hispaniola), 1492, US Library of Congress <u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Columbus_Taking_Possession.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Columbus_Taking_Possession.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Portrait of Vasco <span class=SpellE>Da</span> Gama, Portuguese explorer, National Maritime Museum, London <u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Vasco_da_Gama_-_1838.png">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Vasco_da_Gama_-_1838.png</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Australasia and the Pacific were <span class=SpellE>were</span> discovered and charted between the 17th and 19th centuries; HMS Hampton Court -<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Rendezvous at Sunset, by James Flood<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>-<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://www.jamesaflood.com/paintings.html">http://www.jamesaflood.com/paintings.html</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Modern representations of Anglo-Saxon dress <u><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A.D._500-1000,_Anglo-Saxons_-_022_-_Costumes_of_All_Nations_%281882%29.JPG?uselang=ca">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A.D._500-1000,_Anglo-Saxons_-_022_-_Costumes_of_All_Nations_%281882%29.JPG?uselang=ca</a><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Most Anglo-Saxons fought on foot.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Not even King Harold was mounted at the Battle of Hastings, although kings and the <span class=SpellE>aristoctacy</span> travelled on horseback, and by the 11th century the wealthy displayed their status by acquiring the latest and most expensive accoutrements of war, such as chain-mail. <u><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:LarsonHorsemen.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:LarsonHorsemen.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Bust of the Emperor Claudius (r AD41-54), who led the conquest of Britain in 43; National <span class=SpellE>Archaeologcal</span> Museum, Naples <u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claudius">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claudius</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Queen <span class=SpellE>Cleoptra</span> of Egypt <u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Queen_Cleopatra.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Queen_Cleopatra.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; color:blue;mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>A late medieval propaganda impression of corrupt priests - <u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indulgence">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indulgence</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Pope Gregory IX <u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PopeGregoryIX.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PopeGregoryIX.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>The Nuremberg Bede <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nuremberg_Chronicle_Venerable_Bede.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nuremberg_Chronicle_Venerable_Bede.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>A 19th century depiction of Alfred the Great, painting at <span class=SpellE>Oriel</span> College, Oxford, after a painting in the Bodleian Library (colour engraving) by English School (19th century). Wiki<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>King Cnut, King of England, 1016-35, died at <span class=SpellE>Malmesbury</span>, Wiltshire - <u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnut_the_Great">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnut_the_Great</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Edward the Confessor, King of England, 1042-66 <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Confessor">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Confessor</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>William the Conqueror. Painting oil on oak panel. 57.2 x 42.5 cm, 1618-20, British School. Dulwich Picture Gallery. <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:British_School_-_William_the_Conqueror_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:British_School_-_William_the_Conqueror_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>A 12th-century representation of a seaborne Danish invasion of Britain; from 'Miscellany on the life of St. Edmund' 12th century, Pierpont Morgan Library, New York<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Image of the <span class=SpellE>Menai</span> Massacre, where ancient Roman soldiers massacred Druids based in Anglesey, North Wales; by A White Carousel - <a href="http://awhitecarousel.com/tag/halloween/">http://awhitecarousel.com/tag/halloween/</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>The Great Fire of Rome - <a href="http://historicalwallpapers.blogspot.co.uk/2011/04/great-fire-of-rome-ad-64.html">http://historicalwallpapers.blogspot.co.uk/2011/04/great-fire-of-rome-ad-64.html</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Representation of the Battle of Stamford Bridge between King Harold II of England and Harold <span class=SpellE>Hardrada</span>, King of Norway, and his English ally Earl <span class=SpellE>Tostig</span> of Northumbria, 25 September 1066, in which Harold <span class=SpellE>Hardrada</span> and <span class=SpellE>Tostig</span> were killed -<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Stamford_Bridge">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Stamford_Bridge</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Shoulder clasp (closed) from the Sutton <span class=SpellE>Hoo</span> ship-burial 1, England. British Museum; <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sutton.Hoo.ShoulderClasp2.RobRoy.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sutton.Hoo.ShoulderClasp2.RobRoy.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Bust of the Emperor Hadrian; white marble; height: 90cm; date: 117  138 AD. Capitoline Museums, Palazzo <span class=SpellE>dei</span> <span class=SpellE>Conservatori</span>, Rome, main stairs, first landing. By Wikipedia user Marie-<span class=SpellE>Lan</span> Nguyen (2006) <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bust_Hadrian_Musei_Capitolini_MC817.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bust_Hadrian_Musei_Capitolini_MC817.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>The first page of the twelfth-century manuscript of <span class=SpellE>thelberht s</span> law code (for Kent c 605-610); reproduced in first page of the <span class=SpellE>Textus</span> <span class=SpellE>Roffensis</span> (perhaps from an original now lost); from Rochester Cathedral Library, MS A.3.5; now kept in <span class=SpellE>Strood</span> at Medway Archives (<span class=SpellE>DRc</span>/R1). Scanned from The Anglo-Saxons, ed. James Campbell, 1990 Penguin Books, p. 53. Wiki<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Medieval marriage ceremony <u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marriage_(Catholic_Church)">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marriage_(Catholic_Church)</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>President Barack Obama speaking to an audience of Sailors and Marines, during a visit to the US Naval Air Station of Jacksonville; <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:US_Navy_091026-N-5549O-255_President_Barack_Obama_delivers_remarks_to_an_audience_of_Sailors_and_Marines_before_introducing_President_Barack_Obama_during_a_visit_to_U.S._Naval_Air_Station_Jacksonville.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:US_Navy_091026-N-5549O-255_President_Barack_Obama</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>British Prime Minister David Cameron addresses the World Economic Forum at <span class=SpellE>Davos</span>, Switzerland, 29 January 2010; photo by Remy <span class=SpellE>Steinegger</span> - <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:David_Cameron_-_World_Economic_Forum_Annual_Meeting_Davos_2010.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:David_Cameron_-_World_Economic_Forum_Annual_Meeting_Davos_2010.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Professor Brian Cox speaking at the Royal Institution, London, 26 November 2009; author Paul Clarke; <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Brian_Cox.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Brian_Cox.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>A representation of the Flat Earth; Flat <span class=SpellE>Earthers</span> has become a term of <span class=SpellE>derrogation</span> in Britain of anyone who questions certain aspects of science;<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flat_jord">http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flat_jord</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Cloisters where monks and priests would walk and talk, Salisbury Cathedral; <u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salisbury_Cathedral">http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salisbury_Cathedral</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Map showing the south-west circuit of the <span class=SpellE>Domesday</span> commissioners sent out by William the Conqueror to survey his kingdom; <u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Doomsday_Book_-_1086_-_English_Counties_-_Circuit_(Cornwall,_Devonshire,_Somerset,_Wiltshire,_Dorset).png">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Doomsday_Book_-_1086_-_English_Counties_-_Circuit_(Cornwall,_Devonshire,_Somerset,_Wiltshire,_Dorset).png</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language:JA'>Bamburgh</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language: JA'> Castle filmed by Ian Phillips - <u><a href="http://www.bamburghcastle.com">www.bamburghcastle.com</a><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Heath in the New Forest, south-west Hampshire, filmed by Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language:JA'>Poltross</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language: JA'> Burn, <span class=SpellE>Milecastle</span>, on Hadrian's Wall; about every mile along the Wall, the Romans put up a garrisoned turret, of which <span class=SpellE>Poltross</span> Burn is reckoned one of the best by archaeologists; taken by Simon Mills on 10 August 2005<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>The Angle Church at <span class=SpellE>Escomb</span>, Bishop Auckland, Co Durham, it one of the best preserved Anglo-Saxon churches; built between 670 and 675 from stone taken from the nearby derelict Roman fort of <span class=SpellE>Bibchester</span> <u><span style='color: blue'><a href="http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/727288">http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/727288</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>An area of the New Forest filmed by Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Wild Boar - <u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_young_wild_boar_in_his_environment.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_young_wild_boar_in_his_environment.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; color:blue;mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Tomatoes -<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Wiki<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Oranges and lemons - <u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oranges_and_Lemons.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oranges_and_Lemons.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Statue of <span class=SpellE>Aesculus</span>, or Asclepius, Greek god of medicine; said to have practised in Epidaurus, the Peloponnese; his most famous disciple was Hippocrates; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesculus_hippocastanum<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>- <u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aesculus_hippocastanum_fruit_(jha).jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aesculus_hippocastanum_fruit_(jha).jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>The modern way of playing conkers at school is to wear goggles - health and safety gone mad? - Telegraph Media Group -<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Photo: Manchester Evening News<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Gaius Cornelius Tacitus (lived c AD55-120), one of the great Roman historians, much admired by Edward Gibbon ('Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire'); he was a senator and held the Consulship, the highest office after the emperor <u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gaius_Cornelius_Tacitus_mirror.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gaius_Cornelius_Tacitus_mirror.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>Painting of the assassination of Julius Caesar, by Peter Paul Rubens, location of painting unknown - <u><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://www.wikigallery.org/wiki/painting_391092/Peter-Paul-Rubens/Julius-Caesar">http://www.wikigallery.org/wiki/painting_391092/Peter-Paul-Rubens/Julius-Caesar</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:JA'>We are especially grateful to the organizations, Wikipedia and Wikimedia, and their users, who have furnished so many pictures for this documentary free of charge.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Without them, this history would be a far poorer effort pictorially, and way beyond our financial means had we been obliged to source pictures for payment.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We have also been greatly assisted by the owners of <span class=SpellE>Bamburgh</span> Castle, which appears briefly in this episode and will appear subsequently.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Cathedrals and churches have been liberal in helping us to film in their precincts, and these will be credited, with links, as they appear in later episodes.</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:9;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:16.5pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:10;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:11;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Episode transcript:<o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Britain. The founding of nations. From the withdrawal of roman legions in 381 to William the Conqueror in 1087.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records King William I, (the Conqueror), Duke of Normandy, wearing his crown at Salisbury in August 1086, surrounded by all of his earls, barons, and other principal landholders in his Norman kingdom of England, that was only twenty years old and won by conquest at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>These great men had gathered because a survey of the kingdom was complete, and their holdings duly recorded beyond peradventure of doubt.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>They had come to swear fealty and to make homage to the King for their lands, as recorded in the royal land inquiry.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>They were cementing a relationship of great religious moment between monarch and chief vassals, a relationship that could hardly have been more permanent than if it had been hewn in stone, like the Ten Commandments, though it was written on sheep skins, which have endured very much better than Moses' tablets.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The court at Salisbury was so important an occasion in the feudal nexus of allegiance and loyalty, oaths given to the King in return for land and privileges - which the King's law would uphold for the tenant who was true to his word - that this record of landowners and their property soon became known as <span class=SpellE>Domesday</span> Book, literally, the final arbiter on ownership, duties, responsibilities, privileges that arose from the possession of land.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>From King William's point of view, it was the ultimate record of who owed what to the crown, as supreme landlord of England, in return for their shares in the conquest.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It was the last word on property rights, and the evidence contained in it was soon thought of as the 'Last Trump of Doom,'<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>By the end of the twelfth century, it was called <span class=SpellE>Domesday</span> Book.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>No one knows why for certain - perhaps because it was like the Last Judgment when the trumpets are to be sounded and Christ will come to judge the quick and the dead.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The word 'doom' - D. double O. M. - is an ancient Anglo-Saxon word, meaning a 'judgment', having the effect of a law, and we shall meet Anglo-Saxon kings' dooms later.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Maybe <span class=SpellE>Domesday</span> derives from this word.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>But we have almost seven centuries to recount before we reach Salisbury in 1086, for the plot of this drama is long and winding, with every kind of vice and virtue displayed as we go.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We shall not be able to begin to understand why there was a Norman conquest and why the new king and the ruling lite were able, so quickly, to compile <span class=SpellE>Domesday</span> Book, a land inventory of the vast area that was England, until we understand the centuries that preceded it, and have made England, Scotland, and Wales the nations they now are.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The pre-history of Britain, beginning about ten thousand years ago, after the last Ice Age, when people from continental Europe colonized this island, is barely known.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There have been archaeological discoveries, and consequent speculation, but these are not history.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>History means recorded history, history written down, and we do not really have any of that until the middle of the first century BC in The Conquest of Gaul, written by Julius Caesar, who made two unsuccessful invasions of southern Britain, in 55 and 54BC.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>In my school days, we all soon learned Caesar's famous fib, <span class=SpellE>veni</span>, <span class=SpellE>vidi</span>, <span class=SpellE>vici</span> (the first Latin for most of us) - 'I came, I saw, I conquered.'<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Well, he came and he saw, but the conquest had to wait until AD43 and the Emperor Claudius, who conquered and annexed Britain - Britannia, as the Romans called it - the last province to be added long-term to the Roman Empire.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Roman legions were withdrawn from Britain in AD381 because Rome itself was under threat, and the Island at the Edge of the World was cut adrift.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>I have entitled my discussion as I have because Britain was at the edge of the known world.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Look at the map I have made of the Euro-Asian land mass.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>On the left, we have the enormous Roman Empire, on the right the enormous Chinese Empire.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>In between we have the Persian Empire, the Indian kingdoms and empires, the south Asian kingdoms of the Silk Road between East and West.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>These states and many I have not named were the civilized world as known in about AD400, though the map of the sort I am showing would have had no meaning to people then.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>They had writing, without which organized government is impossible; they had trade, currency, art, literature, philosophy, luxury, religion, numerical, linear-, weight-, and volume-calculation, astronomy, astrology, medicine - well, everything really, but not maps of the sort I am showing.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>What they had was representations of the world, like the one I am now showing, made in the second century by Claudius Ptolemy, a Greek from Alexandria, in Egypt.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>It was not intended as a navigation map, but - with Rome at its centre - Ptolemy's map was meant to demonstrate the overwhelming authority of Roman emperors and the civilized fineness of all things that emanated out of their great imperial city.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Maps that we know in atlases and, until <span class=SpellE>SatNav</span>, in road gazetteers did not begin for another one thousand seven hundred years, in the eighteenth century.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>To the east of the land mass was nothing but the Pacific Ocean, and to the West the Atlantic.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Except for a short visit by Vikings in the eleventh century, the American continent would not be discovered by the peoples of the Euro-Asian land mass until the fifteenth century, first, by the Chinese, who did not stay, and a bit later in that century by the Europeans, in the person of Christopher Columbus.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The coastal strip of North Africa and some way down the River Nile were known, but Africa was otherwise a void until Vasco <span class=SpellE>Da</span> Gama, also in the fifteenth century, set out from Portugal, and sailed round the Cape of Good Hope, and up the east coast of Africa to India.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific islands were not discovered by Europeans, until the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries: the civilized world's contribution to the last group having once been described as bringing 'gunpowder, print, and the Protestant religion' - we ought not to forget syphilis.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Britain, therefore, as a place known to history, was at the very edge of the world in AD381 and would remain so for many centuries to come.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>In our story, we shall encounter Britons who were synonymous with Welsh and Cornish people; Angles, Saxons, and Jutes; <span class=SpellE>Gauls</span>, Franks, Frisians, <span class=SpellE>Picts</span>, and Irish who were really Scots; Norsemen, whom I shall mostly call 'Vikings' until the end of the 10th century, when I shall call them Danes; and then Normans. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>There will be lesser groups.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Some of these races were conquerors and the Normans were the most successful conquerors of them all.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>What lies before us is like an enormous Hollywood epic that Cecil B De Mille might have liked to produce, but whose actors will include real people, playing themselves: Roman emperors, popes, princes, princesses, kings, queens, pirates, rapists, thieves, martyrs, holy men - bad and good - saints, story-tellers, whom we call chroniclers.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Names that still resonate include SS Gregory and Augustine, the Venerable Bede, now canonized, Alfred the Great, King Cnut, Edward the Confessor, and, of course, William the Conqueror.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We shall come across incomparable wealth in the treasure houses of kings and noblemen, to contrast with the meagre livelihoods of unnamed thousands of men and women, whose only fault in these tumultuous centuries was to be at the bottom of the social and political hierarchy: it was ever thus.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We shall find armies and navies, battles and hostage-taking, massacres and burnings of whole towns; gruesome executions, <span class=SpellE>blindings</span>, and <span class=SpellE>maimings</span>;<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>shocking natural disasters, attributed to acts of God visited on a wicked people.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Infidelity in men, it has been well said, is as common as rain, and we shall encounter killers of their fathers, their mothers, their brothers, and their sisters - rulers who can use anyone, even a man of honour.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We shall also find fabulous artworks, wise law codes, just rulers, great kindnesses, acts of selfless charity, and love affairs of the greatest intensity.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>It is a story mainly about how the Christian world spread and took root in the British Isles, but also elsewhere, to become the plinth on which the pillar of Western civilization stands, and to which it remains cemented, despite the rapid secularization of our society since the end of the Second World War in 1945.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We used to believe in religious myths, now we believe in secular ones.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Kings and emperors have been replaced by presidents and prime ministers whose acolytes and apologists include scientists, sociologists, lords of industry and commerce, journalists, television news presenters, even actors and pop singers, and people like me, you might think, as this story rolls along.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>You may well wonder, as we move through the centuries, whether we are making a history of Christianity, or a history of the people who now comprise what I call - not uniquely - the British Mongrel.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We shall be doing both because, without Christianity, we shall never arrive at a proper understanding of the countries that comprise our islands At the Edge of the World, and Christianity - or how Christianity was interpreted - is the continuous thread that links everything together.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Perhaps it still does, if in less intense ways than in the Anglo-Saxon period.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>I shall be digressing, throughout this documentary, from the Anglo-Saxon Christian past to the British present, in which symbols and proselytes, rituals and beliefs - having different names and titles today, being even atheistic - are essentially derived from a Christian heritage of <span class=SpellE>martyrology</span> and have their own form of righteousness, little different - except in nomenclature - from old Canon - or Church - Law, their own inquisitions, preachers, saints, and sinners.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The burning debate - literally, by some lights - of Global Warming among scientists and politicians may not condemn to physical torture or to death by the scarlet flame those who question or dissent; but such dissenters, if scientists, it has been alleged, just don't get published in academic magazines and, thus, are excluded from funding.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The last British government came up with the thoughtful epithet for them: 'Flat-<span class=SpellE>Earthers</span>.'<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Before we go into detail to set the all-important religious context of our period, we must go back again to Salisbury in 1086, where we left King William the Conqueror and his chief followers.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>What was England like then?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>(I say England not to ignore the Scots or the Welsh, but because we actually have a reasonably clear picture of the kingdom from the English chronicles and, of course, that great survey, <span class=SpellE>Domesday</span> Book itself).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Jane Cox, a principal assistant keeper at what was the Public Record Office, organized an exhibition to mark the Great Survey's ninth centenary in 1986.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Public Record Office, or PRO, is now called the National Archives, lives at Kew, south-west London, and is where the original Exchequer <span class=SpellE>Domesday</span> Survey is kept and is known as Public Record No One.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>You can go there to see it in its air conditioned room.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Mrs Cox reminds us in the guide to her Exhibition that England was probably the richest monarchy in Europe.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We shall see why much later in this documentary.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The land was cultivated to a large extent in vast fields where hedgerows, which still define much of rural England today, hardly existed at all.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>She tells us:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> The primeval forests had long been cleared and the land was wooded about as much as modern France.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Settlements were old established and, except for the far north, there was no spot from which half a day's walk would not bring you to a house.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Many Roman roads had been maintained, communications were good, and trade flourished. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The idea, therefore, that Robin Hood and his merry men, a century or so later, could hide out in Sherwood Forest, Nottinghamshire, is fiction.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Indeed, as a lover of the hunt - like all great men of the time - William the Conqueror planted forests, one in south-west Hampshire, so that he could pursue this sport.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>That forest is still called the New Forest because it was new and it was needed in the eleventh century, the king and many of his successors decreed.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There were still wolves and wild boar, but you may not know that there weren't any rabbits.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>These were introduced by the Normans for hunting with the bow.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>I need hardly say that there were none of the modern conveniences, but some absences, that we take for granted today, may surprise.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There was no sugar.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There were no potatoes, tomatoes, spinach, oranges, lemons, coffee, <span class=GramE>tea</span>. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>There were no horse chestnut trees, so there <span class=GramE>were</span> no conkers for boys to play with against each other.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>I remember having a <span class=SpellE>sevener</span>, a conker with which I won seven contests before it was shattered by another boy in a playground competition, where you took it in turns to hit the opponent's conker with your own, both suspended on a knotted string.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Where conkers <span class=GramE>are</span> still permitted in schools, I believe that contestants must now wear safety goggles.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Wine from these shores is not new, though you might think so.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Twenty-four vineyards are recorded in <span class=SpellE>Domesday</span> Book, and British wine, as it was called, is mentioned with praise by Tacitus, a Roman historian living in the early second century AD, which suggests that the climate was warm enough for vines in the outdoors.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We shall continue this preparatory description in next week's episode when I shall tell you about flowers, herbs, trees we did not have, the atrocious forms of medicine available to our ancestors, and Time. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Copyright Robert Smith, Manorial Society of Great Britain</span></i><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:12;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:13;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:14;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;color:black;background:#FFFFCC'>The Manorial Society of Great Britain Ltd is a Company Limited by Guarantee<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;color:black;background:#FFFFCC'>Registered in England and Wales No: 3296984</span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language: EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:15;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:16;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes;height:12.0pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.0pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <![if !supportMisalignedColumns]> <tr height=0> <td width=118 style='border:none'></td> <td width=118 style='border:none'></td> <td width=228 style='border:none'></td> <td width=10 style='border:none'></td> <td width=256 style='border:none'></td> </tr> <![endif]> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof: yes'><span style='mso-tab-count:5'> </span><span style='mso-tab-count:3'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing style='margin-left:234.0pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span></span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:9.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:9.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </div> </body> </html>