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mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="16386"> <o:colormru v:ext="edit" colors="#fdf5d9"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFFFCC" background="ateotw_episode11_files/image002.jpg" lang=EN-GB link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval:36.0pt'> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <v:background id="_x0000_s1025" o:bwmode="white" fillcolor="#ffc"> <v:fill src="ateotw_episode11_files/image002.jpg" o:title="Parchment" type="tile"/> </v:background></xml><![endif]--> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style='margin-left:13.7pt;border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:none;mso-border-insidev: none'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;height:12.75pt'> <td width=274 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:205.35pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:-4.3pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-add-space: auto;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>&lt;&lt; <a href="ateotw_episode10.html">Go to Episode 10</a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> <td width=274 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:205.35pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle align=center style='margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:-4.15pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="ateotw.html">Return to 'At The Edge Of The World' Episode Index</a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> <td width=274 valign=top style='width:205.4pt;border:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpLast align=right style='margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:54.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto;text-align:right;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="ateotw_episode12.html">Go to Episode 12</a> &gt;&gt;<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;height:12.75pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraph align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom: .0001pt;mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center;text-indent:-18.0pt;line-height: normal;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'><img width=22 height=35 src="ateotw_episode11_files/image001.jpg" alt="*"><span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span></span></span></span><![endif]><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>At the edge of the world  Episode 11<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></span></b><span style='mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/> <v:formulas> <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"/> </v:formulas> <v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"/> <o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"/> </v:shapetype><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_6" o:spid="_x0000_i1025" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="image010.jpg" style='width:16.5pt;height:26.25pt;visibility:visible; mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="ateotw_episode11_files/image003.jpg" o:title="image010"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=22 height=35 src="ateotw_episode11_files/image004.jpg" alt=image010.jpg v:shapes="Picture_x0020_6"><![endif]></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2;height:12.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:3;height:14.1pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=bottom style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:14.1pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'><a href="http://youtu.be/RgaorKqD7u0"><span style='color:black;mso-themecolor: text1'>Watch this episode in our YouTube channel</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:4'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:5'> <td width=538 colspan=3 valign=top style='width:403.5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <iframe width=560 height=315 src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/RgaorKqD7u0" frameborder=0 allowfullscreen> </iframe> </td> <td width=283 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:212.6pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: EN-GB'>AD 597 - Augustine arrives in Kent<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'>Sent to Britain in 597 by Pope Gregory the Great, Augustine and his evangelists wanted to turn back,  being, according to Bede,  appalled at the idea of going to a barbarous, fierce, and pagan nation. They persevered, landed in Kent, and were received well by the local king <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'>Written and presented by Robert Smith, Chairman of the Manorial Society of Great Britain - <span style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'><a href="index.html"><span style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'>www.msgb.co.uk</span></a></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language: EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:6;height:20.4pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:20.4pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:7;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:8;height:16.5pt'> <td width=134 valign=top style='width:100.3pt;border:none;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-right-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Credits:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Written and presented by<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Robert Smith<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Voice over<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Barney Powell<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Rebecca Cooper<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Music production &amp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Original music<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Simon Roberts<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>(Lyric media group)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Original film footage<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Picture editor<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Roberto <span class=SpellE>Ekholm</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Asst picture editor<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Guilfre</span></span><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> Jordan<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Associate Producer<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Producer<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Antonio <span class=SpellE>Parente</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td width=688 colspan=4 valign=top style='width:515.8pt;border:none; mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Picture sources:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Icon of the enthroned Virgin and Child with saints and angels, 6th century, at St Catherine's Monastery, south Sinai, Egypt: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Catherine's_Monastery">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Catherine's_Monastery</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The map comes from Paul Vidal-<span class=SpellE>Lablache's</span> Atlas <span class=SpellE>gnral</span> <span class=SpellE>d'histoire</span> et de <span class=SpellE>gographie</span> (1894).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Although this is a political representation of France c 1420, before the later expansion, it gives a reasonable idea of the principal fiefs of the late sixth century, which were greatly subdivided among local warlords, with whom Augustine and his evangelical mission would have had to negotiate on their way to England in 597.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Note that most of modern north-eastern and eastern France had not been absorbed into the Merovingian kingdom, and were only incorporated in the 16th and 17th centuries, the last being Lorraine in 1766: <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Division_of_Gaul_-_587.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Division_of_Gaul_-_587.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span>Pope Gregory I, the Great (c540-1604) by Francisco de <span class=SpellE>Zurbarn</span>, painted, 1626-1627, Oil on canvas, <span class=SpellE>Museo</span> de <span class=SpellE>Bellas</span> <span class=SpellE>Artes</span>, Seville, Spain<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span><a href="http://www.museodebellasartesdesevilla.es/">http://www.museodebellasartesdesevilla.es/</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A denarius coin of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (r 161-180) which contained a reasonable amount of silver.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The denarius's first <span class=GramE>letter 'd'</span> was used in sterling to denote pennies until British decimalization in 1971.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There had been 240d (240 pence) to the pound sterling until then.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Until the Great War, which began in 1914, British sovereigns (coins) were of 24 carat gold, and silver coins were made of silver: 6d,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>a shilling (1s), a florin (2s), and a half crown (2s 6d, usually denoted in writing as 2/6 and 'spoken of as two and six' or 'half a crown').<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There were also paper notes for 1 and 5 which could be taken to the Bank of England and exchanged for gold.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Like most other countries in 1914, Britain came off what was called the Gold Standard (by no means for the first time), when larger denominations became paper notes of 10s, 1, and 5.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There was an eccentric attempt in the later 1920s by Winston Churchill, as British Chancellor of the Exchequer, to restore the Gold Standard, which was abolished once and for all in 1931 as the 1930s world slump took hold, and did much to bring Adolf Hitler to power in Germany in 1933.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>A final note, the shilling derives from Old English <span class=SpellE>scilling</span> and Old Norse <span class=SpellE>skillingr</span>, themselves probably descendants in nomenclature of the early Byzantine gold coin known as the solidus: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_currency">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_currency</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Alonso de <span class=SpellE>Ovalle</span>, 1646 engraving, of Valdivia, <span class=SpellE>Villagra</span> and <span class=SpellE>Alderete</span>, Spanish <span class=SpellE>conquitadores</span> in Latin America of the 16th century: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_de_Villagra">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_de_Villagra</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Presidential Palace: the White House, the executive mansion of the President of the United States, located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C, built by black slaves in the late 18th century, destroyed by the British in 1814, <span class=GramE>then</span> repaired by black slaves.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Which is not an oblique condemnation of American attitudes at the time; Britain only abolished the trade in slaves in 1807, while preserving existing slavery in its Caribbean colonies until slavery itself was abolished by the London Parliament in 1833, effective by about 1840.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Indeed, the largest group of small shareholders in the British slave trade were Anglican clergy.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The US abolished slavery in 1865, at the tail-end of the American Civil War: <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:WhiteHouseSouthFacade.JPG">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:WhiteHouseSouthFacade.JPG</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>St Mellitus, the first bishop of the East Saxons in 604, later Bishop of London.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>At the bottom of the centre light of the stained glass is a scene showing the conversion of King <span class=SpellE>Saeberht</span> of the East Saxons.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>St Mellitus became Archbishop of Canterbury, third in succession to Augustine, whose date of death is, surprisingly, not known, but is thought to have been 604. The arms of the Province of Canterbury are at the top of the centre light. At the top of the left hand light are the arms of the Diocese of <span class=GramE>London,</span> and on the right those of the Diocese of Chelmsford.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Scenes in the outer lights are: the building of the Saxon church, the building of the pre-Conquest nave, the building of the tower, Edward IV granting the Charter to the Jesus Guild. Small medallions show the old school at the foot of <span class=SpellE>Prittlewell</span> hill and the later school next to the church.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The stained glass can be seen at St Mary's Church, <span class=SpellE>Prittlewell</span>, <span class=SpellE>Southend</span>, Essex, England: <a href="http://www.stmarysprittlewell.co.uk/window3.htm">http://www.stmarysprittlewell.co.uk/window3.htm</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Bamburgh</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> castle at the coast of Northumberland, rebuilt and expanded in the 19th century, but dating back, it is thought, perhaps to Queen <span class=SpellE>Bebba</span>, in the 7th century: <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bamburgh_2006_closeup.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bamburgh_2006_closeup.jpg</a><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://www.bamburghcastle.com">www.bamburghcastle.com</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>8th Century portrait of St Augustine of Canterbury from Bede Ms  See Episode 1 <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustine_of_Canterbury">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustine_of_Canterbury</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A much later palace (15th century), Piazza del <span class=SpellE>Popolo</span>, Ravenna, Italy, the Eastern Roman Emperor's headquarters in Italy in the 6th century:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PiazzaDelPopolo01.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PiazzaDelPopolo01.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>As above: the map comes from Paul Vidal-<span class=SpellE>Lablache's</span> Atlas <span class=SpellE>gnral</span> <span class=SpellE>d'histoire</span> et de <span class=SpellE>gographie</span> (1894): <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Division_of_Gaul_-_587.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Division_of_Gaul_-_587.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Gregory of Tours by Jean <span class=SpellE>Marcellin</span> - stone statue, before 1853; 1st statue from <span class=SpellE>Pavillon</span> Turgot to <span class=SpellE>Pavillon</span> Richelieu, <span class=SpellE>Cour</span> <span class=SpellE>Napolon</span> in the Louvre, Paris, France: <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gregory_of_Tours_cour_Napoleon_Louvre.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gregory_of_Tours_cour_Napoleon_Louvre.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Saint Augustine <a href="http://dailyoffice.org/2014/05/26/morning-prayer-5-26-14-augustine-archbishop-of-canterbury-605-usa-memorial-day/">http://dailyoffice.org/2014/05/26/morning-prayer-5-26-14-augustine-archbishop-of-canterbury-605-usa-memorial-day/</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Picture showing how the <span class=SpellE>pallium</span> was worn: Pope Innocent III wearing a Y-shaped <span class=SpellE>pallium</span>: <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Innozenz3.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Innozenz3.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>St <span class=SpellE>Paulinus</span> of York, born in Italy, 584, died at Rochester, where he was <span class=SpellE>interrred</span> - stained glass, Rochester Cathedral: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://saints.sqpn.com/saint-paulinus-of-york">http://saints.sqpn.com/saint-paulinus-of-york</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Folio 125r of the St Augustine Gospels (Cambridge, England, Corpus Christi College, MS 286), Scenes from the Passion of Christ: <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AugustineGospelsFolio125rPassionScenes.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AugustineGospelsFolio125rPassionScenes.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Alonso de <span class=SpellE>Ovalle's</span> 1646 engraving of Valdivia, <span class=SpellE>Villagra</span> and <span class=SpellE>Alderete</span>, as above:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_de_Villagra">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_de_Villagra</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Clovis, first Christian King of the united Franks (baptized sometime between 496 and 508) and founder of the Merovingian dynasty of France, which his four sons split up between themselves on their father's death in 511.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Perhaps the greatest problem among the so-called barbarian successor states of the Roman Empire was the <span class=SpellE>internicine</span> struggles that took place among the heirs.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>England, Scotland, and Ireland were no different as we shall see: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clovis_I">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clovis_I</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Mellitus window at St Mary's Church, <span class=SpellE>Prittlewell</span>, see above:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://www.stmarysprittlewell.co.uk/newmel.htm">http://www.stmarysprittlewell.co.uk/newmel.htm</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Saint Mellitus The first bishop of the East Saxons in 604.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>At the bottom of the centre light is a scene showing the conversion of King <span class=SpellE>Sebert</span> of the East Saxons.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>St. Mellitus became Archbishop of Canterbury. The arms of the Province of Canterbury are at the top of the centre light. At the top of the left hand light are the arms of the Diocese of <span class=GramE>London,</span> and on the right those of the Diocese of Chelmsford. Scenes in the outer lights are: the building of the Saxon church, the building of the pre-Conquest nave, the building of the tower, Edward IV granting the Charter to the Jesus Guild. Small medallions show the old school at the foot of <span class=SpellE>Prittlewell</span> hill and the later school next to the church. <a href="http://www.stmarysprittlewell.co.uk/window3.htm">http://www.stmarysprittlewell.co.uk/window3.htm</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Modern representation of Anglo Saxons<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>with their weapons on choice: <a href="http://www.centingas.co.uk/SchoolVisits.html">http://www.centingas.co.uk/SchoolVisits.html</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The first page of twelfth-century manuscript copy of King <span class=SpellE>thelberht s</span> law code, the first known Anglo-Saxon laws expressed in writing: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86thelberht_of_Kent">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86thelberht_of_Kent</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Pope Gregory <span class=GramE>I,</span> is traditionally credited with inspiring Gregorian Chant, or plainsong, which is not very likely, and there were numerous other musical chants around the Christian world in the sixth and seventh centuries when Gregory lived.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>All were polyphonic (<span class=SpellE>ie</span> in unison) and <span class=SpellE>polyphany</span> (harmony) only started to emerge in the 12th century: <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gregory_I_-_Antiphonary_of_Hartker_of_Sankt_Gallen.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gregory_I_-_Antiphonary_of_Hartker_of_Sankt_Gallen.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>King_Aethelberht</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> of Kent, stained glass window at St Mary's Church, <span class=SpellE>Hillborough</span>, North Sheppey, Kent; picture by Penny Mayes: <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:King_Ethelbert_window_-_geograph.org.uk_-_341487.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:King_Ethelbert_window_-_geograph.org.uk_-_341487.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Presidential Palace: the White House: see above<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Seal of the President of the United States <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Seal_of_the_President_of_the_United_States.svg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Seal_of_the_President_of_the_United_States.svg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Presidential Palace: President Vladimir Putin of Russia enters a grand reception room at the Kremlin, his courtiers kept politely at a distance by red ropes: <a href="http://www.abc.net.au/am/content/2012/s3497570.htm">http://www.abc.net.au/am/content/2012/s3497570.htm</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>President Vladimir Putin took the presidential oath at his 3rd inauguration ceremony, 7 May 2012: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Putin#mediaviewer/File:Vladimir_Putin_inauguration_7_May_2012-10.jpeg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Putin#mediaviewer/File:Vladimir_Putin_inauguration_7_May_2012-10.jpeg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>St Boniface (c 680 750), Pope Gregory I, the Great (c 540 604, pope 590 604), <span class=SpellE>Adalbert</span> of <span class=SpellE>Egmond</span> (8th century), and the priest <span class=SpellE>Jeroen</span> van <span class=SpellE>Noordwijk</span>, depicted in a 1529 painting by Jan <span class=SpellE>Joostsz</span> van <span class=SpellE>Hillegom</span> currently on display at the <span class=SpellE>Frans</span> Hals Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_Saint_Benedict">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_Saint_Benedict</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>King and later Saint Edwin of <span class=SpellE>Deira</span>, centred on York, and of Bernicia (jointly known as Northumbria); stained glass at St Mary's Church, <span class=SpellE>Sledmere</span>, Yorkshire, England: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_of_Northumbria">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_of_Northumbria</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Denarius of Marcus Aurelius, as above: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_currency">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_currency</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Hengest</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> and <span class=SpellE>Horsa</span>, from A Restitution of Decayed Intelligence by Richard <span class=SpellE>Verstegan</span> (1605): <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hengist_and_Horsa">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hengist_and_Horsa</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The <span class=SpellE>Hugin</span> is a modern version of a <span class=SpellE>longship</span> of the sort that may have been used by <span class=SpellE>Hengest</span> and <span class=SpellE>Horsa</span> when they sailed to England in 449.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It was a gift from the Danish government in 1949 to mark the 1500th anniversary of the <span class=SpellE>Jutish</span> landing in Kent.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It is based on the <span class=SpellE>Gokstad</span> Ship of Denmark, dating from about 890, and can be seen at <span class=SpellE>Pegwell</span> Bay, Ramsgate, Kent, England: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugin_(longship)">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugin_(longship)</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Bamburgh</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> castle, as above:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bamburgh_2006_closeup.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bamburgh_2006_closeup.jpg</a><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://www.bamburghcastle.com">www.bamburghcastle.com</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A map showing the locations of the kingdoms of the British Isles in the late seventh century: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:British_Isles_7C_kingdoms_with_Bernicia_and_Deira.gif">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:British_Isles_7C_kingdoms_with_Bernicia_and_Deira.gif</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>King <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span>, as above: <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:King_Ethelbert_window_-_geograph.org.uk_-_341487.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:King_Ethelbert_window_-_geograph.org.uk_-_341487.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:9;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:16.5pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:10;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:11;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Episode transcript:<o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We have said it several times already, but we must keep reminding ourselves of the overwhelming significance that Christianity was to have in the daily lives of everyone in our period.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This Episode is about its early expansion.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>By the time of St Augustine's mission to England at the end of the sixth century, spoken of in the last episode, he and his retinue were having second thoughts as they made their way north from Rome.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Italy may have become a shadow of its past glories - and the population of Rome may have sunk to no more than 50,000, compared with a million under the Empire - but there was order through the network of bishops and churches.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Byzantine emperors at Constantinople still ruled swathes of the country from Ravenna to Sicily where their governors - known as <span class=SpellE>exarchs</span> - ruled under an established legal system.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Roads and bridges were maintained and taxes collected.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Imperial and ecclesiastical authority was underpinned by a civil service, backed by troops - in the case of the Church, some monks and priests were by no means above taking up arms to defeat what they saw were infractions of their conception of law and order.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>But north of the Alps, in Gaul - through which Augustine had to travel - safe passage might depend on the whim of some local warlord.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Gregory of Tours<span class=GramE>,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>bishop</span> and saint, who was born in the Auvergne, in<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>539, actually knew the Merovingian kings of the Franks, who ruled Gaul.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He spent time at their court, and witnessed the violence and caprice of these barbarian rulers and their aristocracy.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>He was an astute observer and recorded, in his great 'History of the Franks,' what he saw of the Frankish 'badlands,' to borrow a useful modern word.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>If they reached the north coast of France, crossing the channel by boat to England must have seemed insane.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Little wonder that Augustine's missionaries were afraid, and wanted to turn back.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Bede tells us:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>596<span class=GramE>:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>...</span>they were appalled at the idea of going to a barbarous, fierce, and pagan nation, of whose very language they were ignorant.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>They...<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>sent back Augustine - who was to be consecrated bishop in the event of their being received by the English - so that he might humbly request the holy Gregory to recall them from so dangerous, arduous, and uncertain a journey.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Augustine was sent back to his group with a letter of encouragement from the pope, who also reminded the members that it was better not to have started on an enterprise than to abandon it once it had begun.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>As we know, the Kentish king gave them a hearing, allowed them to preach, and was converted himself.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Following the pope's advice, the transition from paganism to Christianity was made as <span class=SpellE>seemless</span> as might be.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In 601, Pope Gregory sent Augustine the <span class=SpellE>pallium</span> - a special garment only worn by popes, archbishops, and some privileged bishops.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>By this, <span class=GramE>Augustine<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>is</span> accounted the first archbishop of Canterbury.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Gregory also sent more priests, including <span class=SpellE>Paulinus</span>, who would convert the Northumbrian king and found the bishopric of York.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>After early misgivings, the mission was going well.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Although a <span class=SpellE>salutory</span> moment in the history of the English Church, we should keep in mind that Christianity did not make a sudden intervention into Anglo-Saxon-<span class=SpellE>Jutish</span> society as it did, say, from the end of the 15th century into Central American society with the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Christianity had been continuous among many Britons, as we've seen, from the time when Britannia was a Roman province - though some Britons left England for Wales or Lowland Scotland.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Interpretation of the archaeology along the South Coast, at London, and inland shows considerable trade between Britain and the European continent, particularly with England's largest neighbour, the Frankish kingdom.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Franks' first king, Clovis of the Merovingian dynasty, had converted to Christianity in about 525.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Contact with Frankish Christians must have been commonplace and the Kentish monarchy may have adopted forms of organization, however rudimentary, that obtained in Frankish Gaul.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We have noted that King <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht's</span> Frankish wife Bertha was a Christian.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>His sister <span class=SpellE>Ricole</span> was probably a Christian, too, and had been married by her brother to <span class=SpellE>Saeberht</span>, whom <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span> had set up as King of the East Saxons.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Their tribal area seems to have encompassed Essex and adjoining areas in East Anglia.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle informs us that King <span class=SpellE>Saeberht</span> 'received the faith and baptismal bath' in 604.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Augustine sent Abbot Mellitus to preach to the East Saxons and <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span> gave him 'a bishop's seat in London.'<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Concessions of this sort were likely often speculative.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Usually it would have been <span class=SpellE>upto</span> Mellitus and his followers to shift for <span class=GramE>themselves</span> with whatever assistance they could obtain from the king.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In fact, <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span> built what was to become St Paul's cathedral for the new bishop, suggesting the importance of London in the early seventh century - a topic we shall look at in the next Episode.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>When the chronicles speak of kings, they generally speak of kings of peoples and not of places.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Kingship - chieftainship might be better - was a loose concept - as we mentioned in Episode 7 - meaning authority over a group of people, headed by a tribal warlord.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Often, leaders were elected by acclamation - possibly the raising of the chosen man on the shields of his chief followers.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Accession to tribal authority did not necessarily follow strict primogeniture, and support might be withdrawn and the leader assassinated if he proved ineffective.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>But family descent was very important to the Germanic incomers, the Angles and Saxons, and their leading men were believed to be of divine origin.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>St Augustine and his evangelists made landfall in Kent.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Happily for them, King <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span> was also <span class=SpellE>Bretwalda</span>, the English high king, according to Bede, whose influence extended as far north as the river Humber, which divides Yorkshire from Lincolnshire.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He was also the first English king to convert to <span class=SpellE>Christianty</span> - an example to the rest of the English - hardly unimportant to chroniclers, like Bede, who were all priests and who would have wanted to play up <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht's</span> <span class=SpellE>importance.The</span> coming of English kingship, in the sense that we understand it, was a very gradual process and, conceivably, Bede's use of the word 'king' may owe something to his greater understanding of imperial conventions, stemming from the former emperors of Rome.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He wrote a preface to his History, addressed to 'the most Glorious King <span class=SpellE>Ceolwulf</span>' - his friend and protector in Northumbria - whom he refers to in the text as 'your Majesty'.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>He may have adopted this style which was used in a letter from Pope Gregory to King <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span>, more than 125 years earlier, in 601.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Only emperors were majestic, and European kings remained merely gracious into the 16th century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Gregory <span class=GramE>described<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span></span> as, 'our most excellent son, the most glorious King <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span>, King of the English.'<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It was in the interests even of popes to flatter the self-importance of local warlords: better to overplay flattery than to underplay it, as dealing with any British royal personage today remains living proof.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A ruler's authority then, as now, also depended on the symbols and rituals of office.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The modern British monarchy has honed them to perfection in the past 150 years.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Flummery works just as well today for elected political leaders.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>A president of the republic of the United States lives in a palace called the White House (built by black slaves), and gives press conferences at a podium on which is imprinted 'The Seal of the President of the United States,' derived from a Grant of Arms by the London College of Arms sometime in the 17th century for the ancestor of a Founding Father.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Red carpets are rolled out everywhere.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Journalists stand up when an American president enters the pressroom.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>At least British journalists do not do that, but many of them accept honours.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>A president of Russia enters a formal gathering of the <span class=SpellE>nomenclatura</span> at the Kremlin, preceded by an elaborate display of military drill by soldiers armed with glistering curved swords.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The elite, many of them wearing sparkling State decorations, are confined behind red ropes, and the president is condescendingly affable to right and to left, as he strides in to their applause.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>It is ritual with which the tsars would have felt completely at home, and is very effective.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Presidents of Russia and America are ELECTED emperors, with a military firepower that ancient emperors could not have conceived of in their wildest dreams.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Odd, therefore, that their political successors are mere 'excellencies.'<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Church taught semi-barbarians, as <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span> surely must have <span class=GramE>been,</span> how to magnify their authority through symbols and titles, and gradually to civilize them through Christianity, with its long and ever-increasing <span class=SpellE>panopoly</span> of history, tradition, learning, and message.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In 628, only thirty-one years after St Augustine first set foot in England, St Bede speaks of the newly Christianized King Edwin of Northumbria in these terms:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>So royally was the king's dignity maintained throughout his realm that whether in battle or on a peaceful progress on horseback through a city, town, or countryside in company of his <span class=SpellE>thegns</span>, the royal standard was always borne before him.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Even when he passed through the streets on foot, the standard...<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>was carried in front of him.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A king's head on coinage is ancient.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In Britain, it dates from just before Roman times.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Early Anglo-Saxon leaders - particularly those in Kent - would have been encouraged by example to emulate their foreign royal <span class=SpellE>bretheren</span> by putting their heads on the currency as a means of publicizing their pre-eminence in wider society.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>If a precious metal coinage was also sound, it commanded respect as did the king whose head appeared on it.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Such royal specie was used in international trade, thus promoting to foreign rulers hundreds of miles away the importance of the king who minted <span class=SpellE>it.During</span> the last two centuries of Roman rule, we have inferred that there was trade and social intercourse between Britain and the Angel <span class=SpellE>Cyn</span> of north Germany - and with other races, particularly the <span class=SpellE>Gauls</span>, later the Franks, or Gallo-Franks.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We have seen that a British king <span class=SpellE>Vortigern</span> called in <span class=SpellE>Hengest</span> and <span class=SpellE>Horsa</span> to help him against his enemies, and that in pretty short order they turned on him.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Britons apparently abandoned Kent by 457 - after a catastrophic defeat at the hands of <span class=SpellE>Hengest</span> and <span class=SpellE>Aesc</span>, and 4,000 of them died at the battle of Crayford.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>By abandoning Kent, the chronicler probably meant that the British war leaders fell back, and local folk accepted the new masters.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Many of the annals of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for the next century and more are mostly concerned with wars against British rulers.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>They also speak of this or that warlord arriving by <span class=SpellE>longship</span>, variously landing on the south coast, the Isle of Wight, and in the north-east.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The new arrivals made tribal headquarters by securing of a bridge-head.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This was not only important as a strong defensive centre for military planning, its defensive structures would also have been important to impress and to overawe the surrounding population.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In 547, the founding of a Northumbrian dynasty is remarked in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle when King Ida built <span class=SpellE>Bamburgh</span>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>So-called kingdoms were established more or less successfully in the melting pot that was the island of Britain, in the centuries after the collapse of Roman rule.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Angles, Saxons, Jutes, probably Franks, and others populated - or shared - England with the indigenous British.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Irish came to Lancashire.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Scots came from Ireland to form the kingdom of <span class=SpellE>Dalriada</span> and later Strathclyde, which periodically incorporated modern Cumbria. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Scots eventually intermarried with the <span class=SpellE>Picts</span> from <span class=GramE>whom</span> emerged the <span class=SpellE>Canmore</span> dynasty of kings of Scots.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Kings of the English, of the line of Alfred the Great, emerged at about the same time in the 10th century, the incentive for Anglo-Saxon unity being the constant descents of Scandinavian Viking <span class=SpellE>marrauders</span>, who gradually became settlers.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Nation-building sometimes needs a dangerous external threat to bury <span class=SpellE>internicine</span> rivalry for power.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Fighting among themselves, as we shall see, had long characterized the elites in the large island at the Edge of the World.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>In the next episode, we shall continue with King <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span>, and try to gain an impression of what towns might have been like - of how 'civilized' England might have been. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Copyright Robert Smith, Manorial Society of Great Britain</span></i><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:12;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:13;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:14;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;color:black;background:#FFFFCC'>The Manorial Society of Great Britain Ltd is a Company Limited by Guarantee<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;color:black;background:#FFFFCC'>Registered in England and Wales No: 3296984</span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language: EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:15;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:16;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes;height:12.0pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.0pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <![if !supportMisalignedColumns]> <tr height=0> <td width=114 style='border:none'></td> <td width=119 style='border:none'></td> <td width=231 style='border:none'></td> <td width=10 style='border:none'></td> <td width=257 style='border:none'></td> </tr> <![endif]> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof: yes'><span style='mso-tab-count:8'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing 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