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mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="15362"> <o:colormru v:ext="edit" colors="#fdf5d9"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFFFCC" background="ateotw_episode12_files/image002.jpg" lang=EN-GB link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval:36.0pt'> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <v:background id="_x0000_s1025" o:bwmode="white" fillcolor="#ffc"> <v:fill src="ateotw_episode12_files/image002.jpg" o:title="Parchment" type="tile"/> </v:background></xml><![endif]--> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style='margin-left:13.7pt;border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:none;mso-border-insidev: none'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;height:12.75pt'> <td width=274 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:205.35pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:-4.3pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-add-space: auto;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>&lt;&lt; <a href="ateotw_episode11.html">Go to Episode 11</a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> <td width=274 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:205.35pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle align=center style='margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:-4.15pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="ateotw.html">Return to 'At The Edge Of The World' Episode Index</a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> <td width=274 valign=top style='width:205.4pt;border:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.75pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;height:12.75pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraph align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom: .0001pt;mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center;text-indent:-18.0pt;line-height: normal;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'><img width=22 height=35 src="ateotw_episode12_files/image001.jpg" alt="*"><span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span></span></span></span><![endif]><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>At the edge of the world  Episode 12<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></span></b><span style='mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/> <v:formulas> <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn 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Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2;height:12.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:3;height:14.1pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=bottom style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:14.1pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'><a href="http://youtu.be/KJR11fwEAD4"><span style='color:black;mso-themecolor: text1'>Watch this episode in our YouTube channel</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:4'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:5'> <td width=538 colspan=3 valign=top style='width:403.5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <iframe width=560 height=315 src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/KJR11fwEAD4" frameborder=0 allowfullscreen> </iframe> </td> <td width=283 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:212.6pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: EN-GB'>Pen is mightier than sword<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'>Augustine and his priests rendered the Anglo-Saxon language into the Latin alphabet, and a result was the first written law code.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The pen is truly mightier than the sword, and royal authority was made more effective.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Church showed kings how they could emulate Roman emperors, and a mutually self-supporting relationship began between the spiritual and the temporal.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'>Written and presented by Robert Smith, Chairman of the Manorial Society of Great Britain - <span style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'><a href="index.html"><span style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'>www.msgb.co.uk</span></a></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language: EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:6;height:20.4pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:20.4pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:7;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:8;height:16.5pt'> <td width=134 valign=top style='width:100.3pt;border:none;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-right-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Credits:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Written and presented by<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Robert Smith<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Voice over<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Barney Powell<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Rebecca Cooper<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Music production &amp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Original music<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Simon Roberts<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>(Lyric media group)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Original film footage<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Picture editor<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Roberto <span class=SpellE>Ekholm</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Asst picture editor<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Guilfre</span></span><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> Jordan<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Associate Producer<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Producer<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Antonio <span class=SpellE>Parente</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td width=688 colspan=4 valign=top style='width:515.8pt;border:none; mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Picture sources:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Stained-glass window of <span class=SpellE>thelberht</span> from the chapel of All Souls College, Oxford<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86thelberht_of_Kent">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86thelberht_of_Kent</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A woodcut of Old St Paul s Cathedral, a Norman structure, almost four centuries after St Mellitus, <span class=GramE>the</span> first bishop in the early seventh century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Norman cathedral was lost in the Great Fire of London in 1666: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_St_Paul's_Cathedral">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_St_Paul's_Cathedral</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>St Paul s Cathedral dome, London, Sir Christopher Wren s baroque masterpiece, with Blackfriars Bridge in the foreground.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Picture taken from Waterloo Bridge by Roger: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_bridges_in_London#mediaviewer/">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_bridges_in_London#mediaviewer/</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Modern representation of early medieval priests: <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Medieval_Priest,_Friar,_or_Monk_(2).JPG">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Medieval_Priest,_Friar,_or_Monk_(2).JPG</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Late Anglo-Saxon king and his Witan (Council), sit in judgment on an unnamed miscreant - based on a Biblical scene from the Illustrated Old England <span class=SpellE>Hexateuch</span>: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Witenagemot#mediaviewer/File:Witan_hexateuch.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Witenagemot#mediaviewer/File:Witan_hexateuch.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A criminal is hanged - from an 11th century Anglo-Saxon manuscript.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There are horizontal pegs in both upright posts, evidently used by the executioner to climb up to put the rope round the victim s neck, but no indication how the victim got up there - presumably, he would not have climbed the gallows voluntarily.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Presumably, he was man-handled to the crossbar, possibly from a cart.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Execution by hanging until well into the 19th century meant strangulation, which could take <span class=SpellE>upto</span> 10 minutes.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It is not known when a platform was built and a trapdoor inserted, which was released by the hangman so that the convict could be dropped so many feet, his neck and spinal <span class=SpellE>vertibrae</span> being broken or dislocated as the rope pulled taut, making the arrival of death much quicker and, in that sense, more merciful.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Hangings were public in Britain until 1868 and photographic evidence shows that the platform and the drop were then in use.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Some convicts were decapitated in the noose which greatly alarmed the public, who tended to treat hanging days as holidays: two reasons for taking executions inside prisons.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The last traitor s death in Britain took place in London in 1817 when the victim was partially strangled, cut down alive, castrated and his innards (intestines) drawn and burnt before his eyes while still alive.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>After death, he was quartered, starting with the striking off of his head.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This so appalled even the blood-thirsty London mob - who fled the scene - that drawing and quartering were never used again.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Capital punishment was abolished in Britain in 1965, though not in Northern Ireland.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>However, death sentences in that province were always commuted, and judicial death was abolished in 1999.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The guillotine was only abolished in France in 1982 and last used, unusually, in 1977 when President Giscard refused to exercise clemency, which presidents of the Republic had always done since the 1950s.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He was facing an uphill battle for re-election against the Socialist party of Franois Mitterrand, and Giscard was accused in the French and other Western press of playing politics in an effort to show that he was a supporter of law and order.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Interestingly to some people, Giscard presided over the team who wrote the proposed new European Constitution in the 1990s.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It did not seek to restore the death penalty, but there were clauses in it that would have enabled other European states to enter (invade?) a recalcitrant member state, whatever  recalcitrant might mean.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This document was rejected - much at the insistence of Britain.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The United States is the important Western country not to have abolished the death penalty, although many states have done so.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Lethal injection is the preferred means used there with chemicals that were, until discovered, produced by a British company.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The electric chair is still used in Florida and the gas chamber elsewhere.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The electric chair was invented and promoted by Westinghouse who saw a marketing opportunity in the 1890s, since executions were public.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>A signboard was set up on the scaffold, upon which was written the <span class=SpellE>manufacters</span> name.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>About 10 years ago, several US states, seeking to make judicial death more efficient and humane, were looking at what is called the  decapitation delivery system .<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This takes the form of three sharp-edged discs, like the disc used in a bacon slicer.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Three of these move down electronically in what is referred to among the <span class=SpellE>congnoscenti</span> as the  DDS .<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This method has not yet been proceeded with, but the inventor was a descendant of Joseph <span class=SpellE>Guillotin</span>, who invented the guillotine during the French Revolution and whose family, apparently, have a patent on such beheading machines: <a href="http://www.google.co.uk/images?client=safari&amp;rls=en&amp;q=Anglo-Saxon+punishments">http://www.google.co.uk/images?client=safari&amp;rls=en&amp;q=Anglo-Saxon+punishments</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Part of the Anglo-Saxon tower of All Saints Church, Earls Barton, near Wellingborough, Northamptonshire.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It may date from the seventh century, although that has been disputed.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It could have been built on the site <span class=GramE>of a</span> Roman specula (castle).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The building <span class=SpellE>incorprates</span> later Saxon, Norman, and Perpendicular styles, and is well worth a visit.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Trains go from London, stopping at Wellingborough about two miles away.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The patron of the living (<span class=SpellE>ie</span> who chooses the Anglican priest as vicar) is the Crown, a right that goes back into the mists of Anglo-Saxon time.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Lords of the Manor are the Whitworth family: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Saxon_architecture#mediaviewer/File:Earls_Barton_Detail.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Saxon_architecture#mediaviewer/File:Earls_Barton_Detail.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>This illustration, we think, requires no further caption than that inscribed on the 1986 Plaque: <a href="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/33/Southwark_Bridge_City_Plaque.JPG">http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/33/Southwark_Bridge_City_Plaque.JPG</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>St Willibald, Patron Saint of <span class=SpellE>Eichstatt</span>, Bavaria, Germany, descended from the Wessex Royal Family, dictated the <span class=SpellE>Hodoeporicon</span> to <span class=SpellE>Huneberc</span>, a nun, a travelogue (available at http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/sbookmap.asp, sponsored by the Fordham University, the Jesuit University of New York, USA, a very useful source).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Willibald will be dealt with in greater detail later in this documentary series: <a href="http://orthodoxsojourn.blogspot.co.uk/2011_07_01_archive.html">http://orthodoxsojourn.blogspot.co.uk/2011_07_01_archive.html</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Rouen Cathedral, started in the reign of Duke William of Normandy<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rouen">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rouen</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Roman roads in Britain: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_roads_in_Britain">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_roads_in_Britain</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Moasaic</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> of a gladiator from the Roman villa at <span class=SpellE>Bignor</span>, West Sussex, England.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There is also a museum here: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bignor_Roman_Villa#mediaviewer/File:Bignor_Villa_Mosaic_Rudarius.JPG">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bignor_Roman_Villa#mediaviewer/File:Bignor_Villa_Mosaic_Rudarius.JPG</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Grid plan of Roman Chester with modern map superimposed: <a href="http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/ches/vol5/pt1/pp9-15">http://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/ches/vol5/pt1/pp9-15</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Emperor <span class=SpellE>Septimus</span> Severus (b 145, ruled 193-211) who came to Britain in 208 with a large army and <span class=SpellE>reconquered</span> the lands between Hadrian s and the <span class=SpellE>Antonine</span> Walls, roughly the modern Scottish Lowlands.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>On his way back south, he stopped at <span class=SpellE>Eboracum</span> (York) where he died.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This <span class=SpellE>tondo</span> (circular painting or carving) shows him with his second wife, Julia <span class=SpellE>Domna</span>, and Caracalla, who became Emperor after his father.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>His younger brother <span class=SpellE>Geta</span>, whom Caracalla probably had murdered, has been washed out, <span class=SpellE>Staatsiche</span> Museum, Berlin, Germany: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Septimus_Severus#mediaviewer/File:Severan_dynasty_-_tondo.png">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Septimus_Severus#mediaviewer/File:Severan_dynasty_-_tondo.png</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The container port at Southampton at night.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There was a port here 1,400 years ago in the early Saxon period, when it was known as <span class=SpellE>Hamwic</span>, and probably under the Romans: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_of_Southampton#mediaviewer/File:Southampton_docks_at_night_4_seconds.JPG">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_of_Southampton#mediaviewer/File:Southampton_docks_at_night_4_seconds.JPG</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Perhaps the king s steward who laid out a street plan for Ipswich more than a thousand years ago laid the foundations of today s county town of Suffolk, England: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipswich_Town_F.C.#mediaviewer/File:Ipswich_Town.svg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipswich_Town_F.C.#mediaviewer/File:Ipswich_Town.svg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Costermonger s<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Reproduction of what might have been a costermonger s stall , including<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>askets</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> and wooden bowls<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://www.norwich-market.org.uk/Medieval/saxon.shtm">http://www.norwich-market.org.uk/Medieval/saxon.shtm</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>An imagined Anglo-Saxon cellar at Bede s World, probably used by merchants or the rich.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Bede s World, Church Bank. Jarrow, Tyne and Wear NE32 3DY (www.bedesworld.co.uk): <a href="http://www.panoramio.com/photo/79884105">http://www.panoramio.com/photo/79884105</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Nothing changes: the logo of HM Revenue and Customs.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Saxon rulers would have admired these modern developments: <a href="http://www.londragazete.com/www/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/HMRC.jpg">http://www.londragazete.com/www/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/HMRC.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>An icon of St Constantine of Cornwall, c 520-576: <a href="http://orthodoxwiki.org/File:ScsConstantinus-of-Govan-AHart.jpg">http://orthodoxwiki.org/File:ScsConstantinus-of-Govan-AHart.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>St Constantine s church, near Falmouth, Cornwall, where a farmers market is held, probably inadvertently harking back to St Gregory the <span class=SpellE>Great s</span> advice to Augustine - to permit <span class=SpellE>wholsome</span> markets and feasting outside churches that had superseded pagan temples: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine,_Cornwall#mediaviewer/File:Saint_Constantine_Church_in_Constantine_Village_Kerrier_Cornwall.JPG">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine,_Cornwall#mediaviewer/File:Saint_Constantine_Church_in_Constantine_Village_Kerrier_Cornwall.JPG</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Benedict <span class=SpellE>Biscop</span> swears an oath of loyalty to his protector, <span class=SpellE>Oswy</span>, King of Northumbria, c 670: <a href="http://cashonandcompany.blogspot.co.uk/2012/10/patron-saint-of-decorators.html">http://cashonandcompany.blogspot.co.uk/2012/10/patron-saint-of-decorators.html</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>West Front of Peterborough Cathedral (14th century).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Known as <span class=SpellE>Medehamstede</span> in the seventh century, an abbey here was commissioned by King <span class=SpellE>Oswy</span> of Northumbria, and may have had foundations of stone.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The first abbot and  clerk of works in this building project was <span class=SpellE>Seaxwulf</span>, who is noticed in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle under <span class=SpellE>annal</span> 654: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Peterborough_Cathedral_Exterior_2,_Cambridgeshire,_UK_-_Diliff.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Peterborough_Cathedral_Exterior_2,_Cambridgeshire,_UK_-_Diliff.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Map of London showing the defensive Roman wall round the city: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Londinium">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Londinium</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The remains of part of the London Roman Wall at Coopers Row, which can be visited.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>See Museum of London at www.museumoflondon.org.uk: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_Wall#mediaviewer/File:London_Wall_fragment.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_Wall#mediaviewer/File:London_Wall_fragment.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Eadbald</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> succeeded his father, <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span>, as king of Kent in 616.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This coin is said to show <span class=SpellE>Eadbald s</span> head: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eadbald_of_Kent#mediaviewer/File:Eadbaldobv.1.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eadbald_of_Kent#mediaviewer/File:Eadbaldobv.1.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The St Augustine Gospels, made in Italy in the sixth century, were probably also used by St Laurence, Augustine s successor as second Archbishop of Canterbury, c 604; a page showing the Apostle St Luke.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Gospels are now kept at Corpus Christ College, Cambridge, Lib MS 286: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Augustine_Gospels#mediaviewer/File:AugsutineGospelsFolio129vStLuke.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Augustine_Gospels#mediaviewer/File:AugsutineGospelsFolio129vStLuke.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>King <span class=SpellE>Earpwald</span> of Essex: <a href="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8e/Erpenwald_-_John_Speed.JPG">http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8e/Erpenwald_-_John_Speed.JPG</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Franks Casket at the British Museum, London, England.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Made of whalebone.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The carving includes the Adoration of the Magi, the Roman Emperor Titus (first century), Romulus and <span class=SpellE>Remus</span> (the legendary fraternal founders of Rome), a reference to Achilles from Homer.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span class=SpellE>Weyland</span> the Smith<span class=GramE>,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>an</span> important Germanic legend, is commemorated.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The inscriptions are in Anglo-Saxon runes, and have been interpreted as the persistence of paganism as late as the early eight century:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/franks_casket">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/franks_casket</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Disposition of Welsh tribes or principalities, 500-700: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wales_in_the_Early_Middle_Ages#mediaviewer/File:Wales.post-Roman.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wales_in_the_Early_Middle_Ages#mediaviewer/File:Wales.post-Roman.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Re-enactment by <span class=SpellE>Regius</span> (www.regia.org) of medieval Welsh tribesmen who were little match for larger Anglo-Saxon armies: <a href="http://www.regia.org/research/warfare/welswar.htm">http://www.regia.org/research/warfare/welswar.htm</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>St <span class=SpellE>Gildas</span>, whom we met in the previous Episode, was one of the early Welsh to find pastures new in Brittany, France.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He died in 570 and the image displayed is said to have been a spring at <span class=SpellE>Mobihan</span>, Brittany, associated with him: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gildas#mediaviewer/File:St_Gildas_Fontaine_0708E.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gildas#mediaviewer/File:St_Gildas_Fontaine_0708E.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>St <span class=SpellE>Tanwg's</span> Church, <span class=SpellE>Llandanwg</span>, near <span class=SpellE>Harlech</span>, Merionethshire, in the ancient principality of Gwynedd.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The present structure dates from the 13th century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There are two gravestones that have been dated from the sixth century and a cross stone perhaps dating from the fifth century, preceding the arrival of St Augustine s mission to the English (597) by at least a hundred years.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Picture by Gordon Reed<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://www.jlb2011.co.uk/walespic/churches/llandanwg1.htm">http://www.jlb2011.co.uk/walespic/churches/llandanwg1.htm</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Fr. <span class=SpellE>Deiniol</span> of All Saints of Wales, a priest of the Eastern Orthodox Mission, Blaenau <span class=SpellE>Ffestiniog</span>, Gwynedd, North Wales.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Coptic Christians have <span class=SpellE>enetered</span> south Wales in recent years.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It is not clear how tolerant these churches are of one another and of other Christian denominations - not altogether different from the seventh century, we think, when St Augustine sought to establish unity: <a href="http://www.pravoslavie.ru/english/48566.htm">http://www.pravoslavie.ru/english/48566.htm</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A landscape of Blaenau <span class=SpellE>Ffestiniog</span>, lying in the heart of Snowdonia.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Gwynedd was never conquered by the Anglo-Saxons; that would not occur until the 1270s when King Edward I (r 1272-1307) captured Llewellyn <span class=SpellE>ap</span> <span class=SpellE>Gruffidd</span>, the last Welsh Prince of Wales.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>King Edward secured his conquest by building formidable stone castles at <span class=SpellE>Carnarfon</span>, <span class=SpellE>Harlech</span>, Conwy, and <span class=SpellE>Beaumaris</span>, Anglesey.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Thereafter, princes of Wales were the heirs to the English and now British throne, the most recent prince of Wales so inaugurated being Prince Charles by Queen Elizabeth II at <span class=SpellE>Carnarfon</span> Castle in 1969: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blaenau_Ffestiniog#mediaviewer/File:A_view_of_Blaenau_Ffestiniog_town.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blaenau_Ffestiniog#mediaviewer/File:A_view_of_Blaenau_Ffestiniog_town.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A modern representation of the Battle of Chester, 614, at which King <span class=SpellE>Aethelfrith</span> of Northumbria, according to Bede, began by slaughtering the priests: <a href="http://englishhistoryauthors.blogspot.co.uk/2011/12/divided-land-part-2-northumbria-ad-598.html">http://englishhistoryauthors.blogspot.co.uk/2011/12/divided-land-part-2-northumbria-ad-598.html</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>King <span class=SpellE>Aethelfrith</span> of Bernicia, a somewhat anachronistic modern drawing showing his wearing a Scottish tartan.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>While <span class=SpellE>Aethelfrith</span> had defeated the Scottish king of <span class=SpellE>Dal</span> <span class=SpellE>Riata</span> several years before his victory at Chester, there is no evidence of Scots wearing tartan before 1631, although there were tartan-like garments much earlier in the Russian steppe and other parts of Asia.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It may have emerged under <span class=SpellE>Keltic</span> influence between the eighth and sixth centuries BC: <a href="http://englishhistoryauthors.blogspot.co.uk/2011/12/divided-land-part-2-northumbria-ad-598.html">http://englishhistoryauthors.blogspot.co.uk/2011/12/divided-land-part-2-northumbria-ad-598.html</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Map of the spread of Christianity by 300 in dark blue, by 600 in light blue, and by 800 in green-yellow.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_centers_of_Christianity">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_centers_of_Christianity</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:9;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:16.5pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:10;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:11;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Episode transcript:<o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Anglo-Saxon kings helped the spread of Christianity, but it was not all plain sailing, and some kings slipped into <span class=SpellE>apostacy</span>, and there were homespun Christian 'heretics.'<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We recorded that King <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span> of Kent appointed London the <span class=SpellE>episcopal</span> see for Mellitus and built a church for its first bishop.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Bede tells us that London was the capital of the East Saxons.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Their king was <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht's</span> nephew, <span class=SpellE>Saeberht</span>, implying that <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span>, as <span class=SpellE>Bretwalda</span>, probably enjoyed some authority in King <span class=SpellE>Saeberht's</span> lands.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The church was dedicated to St Paul the Apostle.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It may even have been built on the site of, or have included, a former pagan temple which, as we saw earlier, Pope Gregory permitted after de-<span class=SpellE>paganization</span>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It was replaced by a Norman cathedral that was destroyed by the Great Fire of London in <span class=GramE>1666,</span> on the ashes of which rose Sir Christopher Wren's sublime St Paul's.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Its inspiring dome, thanks to the Prince of Wales<span class=GramE>,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>once</span> more dominates that part of the London skyline, as you cross south to north over the river Thames at Waterloo Bridge.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The first St Paul's was built of stone.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It would have been important to King <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span> to make a building that stood out and to gratify the sensibilities of the priests who would occupy it, for they were reliable supporters and their religion, which he had adopted, underpinned his regime with divine authority.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The priests were also literate and must have devised with the king the first extant Anglo-Saxon Law Code.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Written law, as we know, makes for more effective government, because it becomes a permanent first reference of what is illegal and the punishments that are appropriate for infractions.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It was copied probably at the time and distributed to the new bishops of London and Rochester; perhaps to important abbeys and monasteries.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Bede copied it more than a hundred years later in his History, and there must surely have been other copies long since lost.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>So the law would have been fairly widely disseminated.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Little is known of what London was like at this time.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Historians, such as Bede, and the authors of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle were mostly concerned with Church, royal, and aristocratic matters in that order.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There is a brief mention in Bede of Frisian merchants in London in 679.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>One of the greatest travellers of the eighth century was St Willibald, a monk at Bishops Waltham, Hampshire, who wrote the first travelogue by an Englishman, called the <span class=SpellE>Hodoeporicon</span>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He also managed to fit in what we might describe as a shopping expedition, when he sailed from Southampton to the market at Rouen, in Normandy, and back in 720.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There is a letter from the Emperor Charlemagne to King Offa of Mercia about a trade treaty.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We shall treat with Willibald and Offa later on.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Such formal roads as there may have been had been laid centuries before by the Romans, as also stone buildings.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>London's fortifications seem to have been strengthened at the end of the third century AD.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Excavations of Roman villas recently have uncovered mosaics that include Christian motifs. <span class=GramE>suggesting</span> fourth-century construction.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Anglo-Saxons hardly seem to have lived in towns, and when some of them eventually settled in them, archaeologists have determined that Roman street plans were ignored.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>They built their 'ground houses' as they liked, without regard to the lie of <span class=GramE>streets, that</span> had been built by the Romans on a grid plan.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Romans occupied Britain south of Hadrian's Wall, repaired by Emperor <span class=SpellE>Septimus</span> Severus between 205 and 208.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Bede mentions their cities, forts, bridges, and paved roads which, when he was writing in the 730s, bore witness to Roman endeavour. Richard Hodges wrote a useful article in the monthly magazine History Today, drawing together some of the archaeological strands to suggest that <span class=SpellE><span class=GramE>Hamwic</span></span><span class=GramE> <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span>(</span>now Southampton) had an important Saxon cemetery, and later in the seventh century a market.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Both indicate a permanent resident population.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There might have been a defensive and trading community there from earliest Anglo-Saxon times - the fifth century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>A grave in the same period at Ipswich, Suffolk, it has been proposed, was that of a <span class=SpellE>wicgerefa</span>, or king's steward, who did devise a grid plan for the town covering some 120 acres.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>A similar plan may have existed for the area of Covent Garden, central London.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This was an important wholesale vegetable and flower market until the 1970s.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Only kings could have had the wherewithal and the power to make such things happen.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Kings would have been aware of the revenues that could be exacted from merchants and people in their daily dealings for food, clothes, household utensils, personal adornment.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Sadly, the chronicles are mostly silent on such mundane matters.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>But we can infer that indirect imposts on the retail, and the import-export, trade would have been a valuable supplement to the forms of royal land, or <span class=SpellE>hidage</span> services and taxes, which we shall encounter later.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Ports were markets primarily, where a docked boat's owner might have put out his cargo for sale to merchants, who carried their purchases onwards.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Although of Latin origin, port was a word well known in Old English, and inland place-names that begin or end with it - like Portland and Southport - often signify a market, many of which throve for centuries because there were no shops.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>London was a port, like Southampton.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Their geography has not changed, and both places remain important ports, where the modern royal taxes of Excise, Duties, and VAT are assessed and collected, contributing tens of billions to the Exchequer today.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Archaeology and writings imply that the public areas of some cathedrals and abbeys, founded from about the seventh century, were built of stone, where trade might take place after divine service - as foreshadowed by Pope Gregory in his letter to Abbot Mellitus, quoted in Episode 10.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The living quarters of priests, nuns, and monks, and other outbuildings would have been constructed of wood.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The first written reference in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle I have found to foundations, hinting at the use of stone and brick, is from the Peterborough Manuscript, dated 654.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>King <span class=SpellE>Oswy</span> of Northumbria, then in the ascendant among kings in England, ordered a minister to be built and dedicated to St Peter at <span class=SpellE>Medeshamstede</span>, now Peterborough:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>And they began the foundations and built upon them, and then entrusted it to a monk who was called <span class=SpellE>Seaxwulf</span>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He was a very great friend of God, and all the people loved him, and he was very nobly born in the world, and powerful.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Seaxwulf</span></span><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> was a bishop and Peterborough's first abbot. <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span>Of course, foundations could have been laid on wooden sleepers, but why should Bede have mentioned foundations otherwise?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It is tempting to speculate that, in the case of a royal church as important as Peterborough <span class=GramE>abbey,</span> its main structure would have been built of stone.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>In London, the Roman wall enclosed about three hundred acres.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It was eighteen feet high and between six and nine feet thick.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There were eight gates, more than 20 defensive towers, and a ditch on the outside.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In the church of All Hallows by the Tower is a Saxon arch, made from salvaged Roman bricks, and this kind of reclamation of materials must have occurred all over the country.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Roman glass would soon be being re-cycled to make the first English stained glass.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We left King <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span> granting the bishop's seat at London to Mellitus.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span> was the 'first of the English kings to receive baptism,' but on his death, in 616, his son and successor <span class=SpellE>Eadbald</span> abandoned Christianity. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>At that time, <span class=SpellE>Laurentius</span> was Archbishop (of Canterbury), and because of the grief he had as a result of the King's unbelief, he had decided to abandon all this land and travel across the sea.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>But St Peter the Apostle scourged him fiercely one night, because he wanted to abandon God's flock thus, and ordered him boldly to instruct the King in the true faith.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>And he did so and the King turned to the truth.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>This section of the Canterbury Manuscript, and many others in the Chronicle, indicate how impermanent Christianity was at first among the Anglo-Saxons.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span class=SpellE>Eadbald</span> was succeeded by his son <span class=SpellE>Eocenberht</span> as king of Kent in 640 who, the Chronicle tells us, 'overthrew all devil worship' so, almost 50 years after St Augustine's mission, <span class=GramE>paganism</span> still had adherents among the first Christianized English settlers.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Bede tells us of King <span class=SpellE>Earpwald</span>, of the East Angles, who was persuaded in 627,<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span class=GramE><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>to</span></span><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> abandon his superstitious idolatry and accept the Faith and Sacraments of Christ with his whole province.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>His father <span class=SpellE>Raedwald</span> had, in fact, long before this received Christian Baptism in Kent, but made no good purpose; for on his return home his wife and certain perverse advisers persuaded him to apostatize from the true Faith.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>So his last state was worse than his first: for, like the ancient Samaritans, he tried to serve both Christ and the ancient gods, and he had in the same shrine an altar on which victims were offered to devils.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span class=SpellE>Adwulf</span>, king of that province, who lived into our own times, testifies that this shrine was still standing in his day and that he had seen it as a boy.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Disunity among Christians at the time was hardly helpful, and Augustine was not above taking sides in what we might call the battle for 'hearts and minds' in Britain.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Dating it as 603, Bede tells the story of an attempt by Augustine to bring the British Christians in Wales into obedience to the Catholic Church in Rome.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Remember that the Britons had been Christianized towards the end of the Roman occupation of the island, which ended in about 381.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Theological developments in Rome may well have been restricted because England and its nearest neighbour France were 'war zones,' ruled by warlords, many of them pagan, as we have seen.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Roman popes had, in these years. <span class=GramE>been</span> surviving men like Attila the Hun and other conquerors, including resurgent Eastern emperors, in Italy itself.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Remember also that, in common with most other religions with which I have any familiarity, converting pagans was perhaps not as important as enforcing conformity among Christians, or worse, those Christians who were seen as heretics.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Where there were deviant Christians, getting papal authority in Rome established appears to have been the priority. Augustine had got the agreement of the Welsh bishops to meet at a council - location now unknown - to determine their differences.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Bede picks up the story of the British bishops' reaction when, on their entrance, Augustine failed to get up from his chair to receive them:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Seeing this they became angry, accusing him of pride and taking pains to contradict all he said.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Augustine then declared, 'there are many points on which your customs conflict with ours, or rather with those of the universal Church.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Nevertheless, if you will agree with me on three points, I am ready to countenance all your other customs, although they are contrary to our own.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>These points are: to keep Easter at the correct time; to complete the Sacrament of Baptism, by which we are reborn to God, according to the rites of the Holy, Roman, and Apostolic Church, and to join with us in preaching the Word of God to the English.'<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>But the bishops refused these things, nor would they recognize Augustine as their archbishop, saying among themselves that if he would not rise to greet them in the first instance, he would have even less regard for them once they submitted to his authority.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Whereupon Augustine, that man of God, is said to have answered with a threat that was also a prophecy: if they refused to accept peace with fellow Christians, they would be forced to accept war at the hands of enemies; and if they refused to preach to the English the way of life, they would eventually suffer at their hands the penalty of death.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Note that Augustine failed to rise when the British delegation arrived: it is always the little things that stir up the greatest anger among human beings.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Nor did Augustine select diplomatic words, and I sense Bede thinking that these Welsh prelates got their comeuppance soon after, when the pagan King <span class=SpellE>Aethelfrith</span> of Northumbria met a Christian nonconformist Welsh army in battle at Chester.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Hearing that the Welsh had brought priests with them, who, <span class=SpellE>Aethelfrith</span> assumed, were praying for his defeat, the Northumbrian leader directed his attack first against them, killing twelve hundred of them.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He then killed what the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle describes as 'a countless number of Welsh.'<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Some religious folk tend to reserve their greatest hatred for their own heretics. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We shall continue this theme in the next Episode.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Christianity was established in Britain under the Romans.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Faith spread once St Augustine arrived, being adopted by Anglo-Saxon rulers, who were sometimes succeeded by apostates. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Copyright Robert Smith, Manorial Society of Great Britain</span></i><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:12;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; 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