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v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFFFCC" background="ateotw_episode2_files/image002.jpg" lang=EN-GB link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval:36.0pt'> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <v:background id="_x0000_s1025" o:bwmode="white" fillcolor="#ffc"> <v:fill src="ateotw_episode2_files/image002.jpg" o:title="Parchment" type="tile"/> </v:background></xml><![endif]--> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style='margin-left:13.7pt;border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:none;mso-border-insidev: none'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;height:12.75pt'> <td width=274 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:205.35pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:-4.3pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-add-space: auto;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>&lt;&lt; <a href="ateotw_episode1.html">Go to Episode 1</a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> <td width=274 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:205.35pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle align=center style='margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:-4.15pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="ateotw.html">Return to 'At The Edge Of The World' Episode Index</a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> <td width=274 valign=top style='width:205.4pt;border:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpLast align=right style='margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:54.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto;text-align:right;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="ateotw_episode3.html">Go to Episode 3</a> &gt;&gt;<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;height:12.75pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraph align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom: .0001pt;mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center;text-indent:-18.0pt;line-height: normal;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'><img width=22 height=35 src="ateotw_episode2_files/image001.jpg" alt="*"><span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span></span></span></span><![endif]><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>At the edge of the world  Episode 2<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></span></b><span style='mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/> <v:formulas> <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn 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Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2;height:12.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:3;height:14.1pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=bottom style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:14.1pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'><a href="http://youtu.be/Gc5KcgfUcf4"><span style='color:black;mso-themecolor: text1'>Watch this episode in our YouTube channel</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:4'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:5'> <td width=538 colspan=3 valign=top style='width:403.5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <iframe width=560 height=315 src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/Gc5KcgfUcf4" frameborder=0 allowfullscreen> </iframe> </td> <td width=283 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:212.6pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: EN-GB'>1087: What England was like at the Conqueror's death?<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'>Episode two discusses what England looked like more than 900 years ago.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Some flowers, trees, wild life we take for granted did not exist in Britain.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Medicine was appalling and a small cut in your straw house could easily kill you because infection wasn't understood.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Hardly anyone lived beyond the age of 40 and most probably didn't know how old they were.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>More than half of all born children were dead before they were 10.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'>Written and presented by Robert Smith, Chairman of the Manorial Society of Great Britain - <span style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'><a href="index.html"><span style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'>www.msgb.co.uk</span></a></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language: EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:6;height:20.4pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:20.4pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:7;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:8;height:16.5pt'> <td width=134 valign=top style='width:100.3pt;border:none;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-right-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Credits:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Written and presented by<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Robert Smith<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Voice over<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Barney Powell<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Rebecca Cooper<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Music production &amp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Original music<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Simon Roberts<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>(Lyric media group)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Original film footage<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Picture editor<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Roberto <span class=SpellE>Ekholm</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Asst picture editor<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Guilfre</span></span><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> Jordan<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Associate Producer<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Producer<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Antonio <span class=SpellE>Parente</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td width=688 colspan=4 valign=top style='width:515.8pt;border:none; mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Picture sources:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candle">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candle</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Bartolom</span></span><span style='font-size: 8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> Bermejo, Christ Leading the Patriarchs to Paradise, c. 1480. In this depiction of the Harrowing of Hell, Methuselah is portrayed as leading the procession of the righteous behind Christ, along with Solomon, the Queen of Sheba, and Adam and Eve - Institute of Hispanic Art, Barcelona: <u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://www.kfki.hu/~arthp/html/b/bermejo/index.html">http://www.kfki.hu/~arthp/html/b/bermejo/index.html</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>The Anno Domini calendar of Dionysius <span class=SpellE>Exiguus</span>, copy made c 1126<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>A statue of Asclepius, the Greek god of medicine, The <span class=SpellE>Glypotek</span>, Copenhagen. Wiki<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Contemplation - Source unknown:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://rcspiritualdirection.com/">http://rcspiritualdirection.com/</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>The Capitoline She-Wolf with the boys Romulus and <span class=SpellE>Remus</span>; <span class=SpellE>Museo</span> <span class=SpellE>Nuovo</span> in the Palazzo <span class=SpellE>dei</span> <span class=SpellE>Conservatori</span>, Rome:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romulus_and_Remus">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romulus_and_Remus</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Augustus of Prima <span class=SpellE>Porta</span>, statue of the Emperor Augustus in <span class=SpellE>Museo</span> <span class=SpellE>Chiaramonti</span>, Vatican, Rome.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Photograph: Original by Andreas <span class=SpellE>Wahra</span>, new version by Till <span class=SpellE>Niermann</span>. Wiki.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Fountains <span class=GramE>Abbey<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Looking</span> east along the <span class=SpellE>Skell</span> to the Guest Houses (left) and Brothers' Infirmary (behind the bridge).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span class=GramE><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Errol<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Flynn</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Louis de <span class=SpellE>Rouvroy</span>, <span class=SpellE>duc</span> de Saint-Simon (1675-1755), author of one of the finest memoirs written, about his time at Versailles from c 1690 to his withdrawal from Court in 1724 -<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/actualites/celebrations2005/saintsimon.htm">http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/actualites/celebrations2005/saintsimon.htm</a> <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span>Wiki.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Doktor</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> Schnabel von Rom ('Dr Beak from Rome') engraving, Rome 1656; Physician's attire for protection from bubonic plague or Black Death, endemic in Europe until well into the 18th century - from the book, <i>History of Medicine</i>, by Paul <span class=SpellE>Fuerst</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Statue of William the Conqueror on horseback, <span class=SpellE>Falaise</span>, Normandy:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> <u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_the_Conqueror">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_the_Conqueror</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>A page from <span class=SpellE>Domesday</span> Book (Bedfordshire), National Archives, Kew, England:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Domesday_Book_Bedfordshire.djvu">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Domesday_Book_Bedfordshire.djvu</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Turdus</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> <span class=SpellE>merula</span>, a male common blackbird in Manchester, England; there were no blackbirds in England in 1086, Wiki<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Delphinium flower, Latina: Delphinium <span class=SpellE>officinale</span> - Wiki<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Laburnum, photo by Wiki User: Jeff <span class=SpellE>Delonge</span>, France, May 2004 - Wiki<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>There was no lavender in England before the Normans:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> <u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lavandula">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lavandula</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Muhammad <span class=SpellE>ibn</span> <span class=SpellE>Zakariya</span>, lived 854-925, one of the most important medieval physicians; b Teheran, lived Baghdad; wrote more than 200 books on chemistry, medicine, and philosophy, and on numerous diseases and ailments, inc smallpox, blindness, and chicken pox when the <span class=SpellE>the</span> Church in the West thought more of the Afterlife than the Here and Now; eventually made an enormous impression on Western medicine:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_ibn_Zakariya_al-Razi">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_ibn_Zakariya_al-Razi</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>St Benedict, c480-550, founded Monte <span class=SpellE>Cassino</span>, whose Rule remains the basis of Western monasticism - Franz Hals Museum, Haarlem, The Netherlands: </span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_Saint_Benedict">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_Saint_Benedict</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Contemplation. Source unknown: <u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://rcspiritualdirection.com/">http://rcspiritualdirection.com/</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Hermits' cave at Dale Abbey, Derbyshire, England - <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hermits_Cave_(The_Hermitage),_Hermits_Wood,_Dale_Abbey,_Derbyshire_-_East_Midlands_of_England.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hermits_Cave_(The_Hermitage),_Hermits_Wood,_Dale_Abbey,_Derbyshire_-_East_Midlands_of_England.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>12th century Hermitage St <span class=SpellE>Eugne</span> <span class=SpellE>dans</span> le Bois, <span class=SpellE>Ardche</span>, France: <u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hermitage-rear.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hermitage-rear.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>The Plague of <span class=SpellE>Ashod</span>, Nicolas <span class=SpellE>Poussin</span> (1594-1665), French, 1630, oil on canvas, 148 x 198 cm. <span class=SpellE>Muse</span> du Louvre, Paris, France  <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/file:plague_in_ashod.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/file:plague_in_ashod.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Representation of St Sebastian interceding to save victims of the plague:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> <u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Josse_Lieferinxe_-_Saint_Sebastian_Interceding_for_the_Plague_Stricken_-_Walters_371995.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Josse_Lieferinxe_-_Saint_Sebastian_Interceding_for_the_Plague_Stricken_-_Walters_371995.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Louis de <span class=SpellE>Rouvroy</span>, <span class=SpellE>duc</span> de Saint-Simon - details above<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A surgeon making short work of a limb amputation.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Speed was of the essence so that a <span class=SpellE>catheta</span> could be applied, or the patient would die of a massive haemorrhage or the shock of pain.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Surgical instruments were seldom cleaned after use as infection was unknown.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>King Louis XIV (r 1742-1715) was successfully relieved of an anal fistula (Saint Simon).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There were no anaesthetics:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hans_von_Gersdorff_-_amputation.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hans_von_Gersdorff_-_amputation.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Kitchen of a wealthy medieval household, picture known as <i>The Merry Farmer</i>:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> <u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_cuisine#mediaviewer/File:9-alimenti,_formaggi,Taccuino_Sanitatis,_Casanatense_4182.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_cuisine#mediaviewer/File:9-alimenti,_formaggi,Taccuino_Sanitatis,_Casanatense_4182.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>The sack of Rome by Alaric and his Goths:</span><span style='font-size: 8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sack_of_Rome_(410)#mediaviewer/File:Eroberung_roms_410.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sack_of_Rome_(410)#mediaviewer/File:Eroberung_roms_410.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>Bartolom</span></span><span style='font-size: 8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'> Bermejo, Christ Leading the Patriarchs to Paradise, details given above <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Statue of King Alfred at Winchester, capital of his kingdom of Wessex:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_the_Great">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_the_Great</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Children until well into the 17th century were dressed like adults so the bride on the left looks older than she was; her groom is the bearded man on the right:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_marriage">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_marriage</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>An Acme camera, made by Watson of London in 1889 until about 1940:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://camera-wiki.org/wiki/Acme">http://camera-wiki.org/wiki/Acme</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Queen Victoria meets Shah <span class=SpellE>Zadah</span> <span class=SpellE>Nasrullah</span> Khan of Afghanistan, 1895; from about this period newspapers and magazines were able to print pictures cheaply, using process blocks, London Illustrated News:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Illustrated_London_News_-_June_1_1895_-_Queen_Victoria_meets_Shahzada_Nasrullah_Khan.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Illustrated_London_News_-_June_1_1895_-_Queen_Victoria_meets_Shahzada_Nasrullah_Khan.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>An early BBC Television interview (1946) with the actress Elizabeth Scott; viewers could now hear people who were not reading from a script.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Thirteen years later, an interview, led by the late, redoubtable Robin Day, on ITV, with the Japanese Industry Minister ushered in the end of deference to persons in authority by television reporters.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Minister complained to the Macmillan government of Britain, but the probing, not always polite, interview had come to stay in democracies:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picture_Page">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picture_Page</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Queen Elizabeth I (r 1558-1603) established at the end of her reign the Poor Law, a rudimentary system of relief in England, later <span class=GramE>Britain, that</span> lasted until the Attlee government of 1945-51 which introduced the Welfare State.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Referring to the caption above, no one was ever foolish enough to criticize Queen Elizabeth, whose idea of criticism was probably unqualified praise.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Portrait at Woburn Abbey, Bedfordshire, painter unknown</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_I_of_England">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_I_of_England</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Voting in the mid-18th century was very limited and wide open to corruption, as suggested in this painting by William Hogarth:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/secret_ballot">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/secret_ballot</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>A polling station in the City of New York by secret ballot; the secret ballot was introduced in Britain in 1872 and in most Western (limited) democracies about this time; of course, women were excluded - in Britain until 1918 (when they had to be 30 years old) becoming equal with men (age 21) in 1928; in France, women did not get the vote until 1947; and in certain cantons of Switzerland, they did not get the vote until the 1990s:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> link immediately as above<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Voters in Hackney, London, during the general election of May 2010:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Voting_in_Hackney.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Voting_in_Hackney.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>An early car assembly line:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assembly_line/mediaviewer/File:A-line1913.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assembly_line/mediaviewer/File:A-line1913.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Female lamp workers clocking on at the <span class=SpellE>Duralite</span> factory in <span class=SpellE>Spennymoor</span>, Co Durham, England.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>2000 <span class=SpellE>Credit:Topham</span> <span class=SpellE>Picturepoint</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>The Anno Domini calendar of Dionysius <span class=SpellE>Exiguus</span>, details above<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Romulus and <span class=SpellE>Remus</span>, legendary founders of Rome: <u style='text-underline:blue'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romulus_and_Remus">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romulus_and_Remus</a><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:28.3pt 56.65pt 85.0pt 113.35pt 141.7pt 170.05pt 198.4pt 226.75pt 255.1pt 283.45pt 311.8pt 340.15pt; mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;tab-stops:28.3pt 56.65pt 85.0pt 113.35pt 141.7pt 170.05pt 198.4pt 226.75pt 255.1pt 283.45pt 311.8pt 340.15pt; mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Julius Caesar after whom July is named:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1st_century_BC">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1st_century_BC</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Augustus of Prima <span class=SpellE>Porta</span>, statue of the Emperor Augustus, details above<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Church bells still summon the religious in many countries: the belfry at St Peter's. Howden, East Riding, <span class=SpellE>Yorks</span>, England:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://www.cccbr.org.uk">http://www.cccbr.org.uk</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Sundial:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sundial_2r.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sundial_2r.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>So long as a candle is kept out of the draft, numbers still denote the hours: <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Candle-calendar.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Candle-calendar.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>What Anglo-Saxon dress might have looked like:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> <u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><a href="http://www.wikigallery.org/wiki/painting_204057/Albert-Kretschmer/Anglo-Saxon-Dress">http://www.wikigallery.org/wiki/painting_204057/Albert-Kretschmer/Anglo-Saxon-Dress</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>St Augustine of Hippo (AD354-430), the founder of Church (Canon) Law:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustine_of_Hippo">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustine_of_Hippo</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Common Era and Before Common Era: </span><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://billcreasy.com/2013/04/01/whats-with-b-c-b-c-e/">http://billcreasy.com/2013/04/01/whats-with-b-c-b-c-e/</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Anno Domini BC/AD  graphic by Antonio <span class=SpellE>Parente</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>St Bede, until his recent canonization known as the Venerable Bede, 'invented' the dating system BC (Before Christ), which is open-ended into the past.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It was not until James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh (1581-1656), calculated that the Creation occurred in 4004BC that BC became finite.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This idea did not long survive Charles Darwin's <i>Origin of Species</i> (1859) and <i>The Descent of Man</i> (1871) (and earlier writers from the 18th century) who realized that the world was many millions (in fact, billions) of years old: </span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bede">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bede</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>BCE / CE  Definition <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Jesus Christ and Anno Domini:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";color:blue'> <u style='text-underline: blue'><span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronology_of_Jesus">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronology_of_Jesus</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Wood <span class=SpellE>Stanway</span>, Gloucestershire - a village where the Open Field System has been preserved in England.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This system is ancient and crops rotated, with one field always fallow (unused to regain its 'strength') each year; by the 18th century in England, led by reforming landowners, such as Lord Townshend, in Norfolk, the third field was planted with legumes, such as turnips and other root vegetables; and clover, which could be used for silage - these plants used the fallow field, but also enriched the soil.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>'<span class=SpellE>Fallowfield</span>' is a place name throughout England and is - perhaps of all unexpected places - an inner suburb of Manchester.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Place names can tell us much about what activities went before.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Lord Townshend, after a successful career in government, repaired to his estate at <span class=SpellE>Rainham</span> (where the family still live), and managed his farms in this way and wrote about it, publicizing this much more efficient system of farming; he was known as 'Turnip Townshend' as he still is to historians, and these innovations led in Britain to what is known as the Agricultural Revolution.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Even King George III took it up on the Crown Estates and is known as 'Farmer George':</span><span style='font-size: 8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_field_system">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_field_system</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>A modern representation of Anglo-Saxon ploughmen:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> <u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anglo-Saxon_ploughmen.png">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anglo-Saxon_ploughmen.png</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Some Anglo-Saxon dress</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'>, details above<span style='mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Saxon, Angle, and <span class=SpellE>Jutish</span> kings or chieftains gave rings to their leading supporters, usually made of some precious metal, which were worn on the <span class=SpellE>bicept</span> as a signal mark of favour; this silver ring was found in the River Thames, London:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BLW_Silver_Anglo-Saxon_ring.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BLW_Silver_Anglo-Saxon_ring.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>A gold belt-buckle found at the 7th century hoard in Sutton <span class=SpellE>Hoo</span>, Suffolk, in 1939.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This was manufactured in England - how 'dark' were the so-called Dark Ages?</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niello">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niello</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>A goat: Breeding animals for meat and cross-fertilising corn for<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>higher production was surely discovered very slowly, and inadvertently, over centuries, and Anglo-Saxon animals were scrawny and ears of corn thin compared with today.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It was not until the 18th century that early scientific method came to bear in Europe, especially in Britain, see Wood <span class=SpellE>Stanway</span> caption five paragraphs above:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> <u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goat">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goat</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>John Macadam (1756-1836) invented tarmac, the use of broken stones bound together in heated asphalt or tar to create a <span class=SpellE>mettled</span> road surface</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>: <u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:John_Macadam.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:John_Macadam.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Drawing of London Bridge from a 1682 London Map, Surveyed by William Morgan, d. 1690; first built in the reign of King John (1199-1216) and demolished, with its shops and houses, in 1755.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The reason Britain drives on the left is because the old bridge became so congested with traffic that a Lord Mayor of London ordered all traffic to use the left side of the bridge north and south.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It stuck.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Besides Britain, most of its former imperial possessions, except Canada, drive on the left, together with Japan and Thailand.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Sweden switched from left to right in the 1970s.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>French railways used to travel on the left from the reign of Emperor Napoleon III (r 1852-70) because the British built most French railways.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Damage caused to northern France by the Royal and US Air Forces, in preparation for D-Day (6 June 1944), devastated French tracks and marshalling yards, and French railways were rebuilt and locomotives now drive on the right.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Drawing published by the London Topographical Society, 1904: </span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/file:London-bridge-1682.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/file:London-bridge-1682.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Modern London Bridge from the South bank of the River Thames. Photographer <span class=SpellE>Oyxman</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>One of Britain many remaining fords:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_(crossing)">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford_(crossing)</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Burton Agnes Manor House, probably built on the site of earlier houses, including a Anglo-Saxon hall:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burton_Agnes_Manor_House">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burton_Agnes_Manor_House</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>The Time Team logo:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'> <u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_Team">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_Team</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>A re-creation of an Anglo-Saxon village at West Stow, about five miles north-west of Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk - well worth a visit:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Stow_Anglo-Saxon_village">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Stow_Anglo-Saxon_village</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Computer reconstruction of the Hall and other wooden buildings at <span class=SpellE>Yeavering</span>, Northumberland, one of the palaces of the Kings of Northumbria:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> <u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yeavering">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yeavering</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Peterborough Cathedral as it is today in the East Midlands of England.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It may have been partly a stone building from its beginning:</span><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> <u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Peterborough_Cathedral_March_2010.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Peterborough_Cathedral_March_2010.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Parts of the crypt at Durham Cathedral are of stone, and the mortal remains of St Cuthbert, Bishop of <span class=SpellE>Lindisfarne</span>, finally came to rest here in 995.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The present cathedral was built in the Norman age:</span><span style='font-size: 8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> <u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_architecture">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_architecture</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Fountains Abbey, in North Yorkshire Sacred Destinations, <a href="http://www.sacred-destinations.com">http://www.sacred-destinations.com</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Drawing of London Bridge from a 1682, details above<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>John Macadam, details above<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Romulus and <span class=SpellE>Remus</span>: silver <span class=SpellE>didrachm</span> (6.44g). <span class=GramE>c269-266</span> BC, anonymous (Rome).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Reverse: Wolf &amp; Twins, ROMANO in Exergue; Crawford 20/1 <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'>Fountains Abbey Inside the east guest house, looking north; Sacred Destinations <a href="http://www.sacred-destinations.com">http://www.sacred-destinations.com</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:9;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:16.5pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:10;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:11;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Episode transcript:<o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We continue the scene-setting in this Second Episode of At the Edge of the World.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Last week, we noted that, in 1086, England's first Norman king, William the Conqueror - who had reigned twenty years since his victory at the Battle of Hastings - had made a survey of his kingdom of England, called <span class=SpellE>Domesday</span> Book, which was intended to tell him everything about his people - their number, wealth, agriculture, business, name of the lord of the manor - down to the smallest village, the last pig, the last eel.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We also discovered from the work of Mrs Jane Cox at the National Archives, that some species of flora and fauna, that we take for granted, were absent in Norman England.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Here are some more absentees: there were no blackbirds, delphiniums, marigolds, laburnum - those gorgeous, voluptuous <span class=SpellE>effulgences</span> of yellow flowers that tell us that spring has really arrived.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There was no lavender or rosemary.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Tobacco and drugs, including recreational drugs, like marijuana and cocaine, were not available in Europe until the sixteenth century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There was alcohol.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>There was little conception of medicine and medical practice after the Fall of the Roman Empire in the West in the fifth century AD, and the revival of <span class=SpellE>Graeco</span>-Roman medical knowledge by the Muslims in the Middle East, North Africa, and Spain from the eighth century <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span class=GramE><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>was</span></span><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> either unknown or ignored in Western Europe, even thought wrong by some men in the Church who saw physical <span class=SpellE>afflications</span> as divine punishment or as a test of their faith.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Indeed, the whole of earthly life was a trial in preparation for the Afterlife, and the brickbats of the Here and Now were to be borne with equanimity.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Priests, monks, and nuns sometimes wore hair shirts, undertook self-flagellation, or became hermits living 'in the wild' on acorns, by one account, their lives given to contemplation, prayer, and the <span class=SpellE>mortiftion</span> of the flesh.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Some hermits came together in groups, from which a religious foundation might evolve, and this is where we get the word 'hermitage.'<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>I wonder whether the folk who today own, or stay in, hotels and restaurants called the 'Something Hermitage' - a swanky sort of name - know just what they are harking back to?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Perhaps they do: <span class=SpellE>teasmaids</span> in the bedroom and amateur, inattentive, acne-faced waiters in the dining-room are the less attractive modern equivalents of the hermit's cauldron of long-simmered soup made from root vegetables he or she had collected.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>People knew that diseases, especially diseases like plague, spread, but they had little idea of how to deal with it other than to try to keep out of an area and burn the bodies after death.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>There was no conception of infection from water, unless it smelt and looked particularly unpleasant; or from cuts: really quite small cuts could, and usually did, kill you.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The idea of boiling water or sterilizing knives in scalding water was only realized in the early nineteenth century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In his Memoires, the <span class=SpellE>Duc</span> de Saint Simon, writing about the Court of Louis XIV at Versailles, that centre of Western civility in the later seventeenth century, mentions that surgeons cleaned their instruments once a month.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We might wonder why they bothered at all.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>It is very hard to know what life expectancy was in Britain in these centuries.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The 'common people' - as the masses were routinely described by chroniclers - were of no interest other than as the number of men in an army, say, or the bodies of the dead when a city was sacked, or stricken with plague.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Bible speaks of 'three-score years and ten,' but this must have seemed as mythical as the 969 years ascribed to Methuselah in the Book of Genesis.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We know a bit more about the age of kings and clergymen, but not much.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Those who survived battle or the treatment of their wounds by doctors might reach fifty, like King Alfred the Great.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Some high clergy made it to seventy - not many.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Consequently, people married much earlier and, though there was no formal age of consent, twelve seems to have been the age at which a marriage might be <span class=SpellE>consumated</span>, though it could be contracted much earlier.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Indeed, the age of consent set at sixteen in Britain was not, I think, established by law until 1885.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Knowledge about the mass of the people is not gathered until the later eighteenth century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This intensified in the West as the political events of the century, and its successor the twentieth century, unfolded.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>In the early years, among the elite, a growing knowledge of the nameless masses was due to the work of private individuals and charitable organizations, mostly based on religious tenets.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Opposition to the lucrative slave trade also emerged at this time.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The camera and then the newsreel made an immediate impact.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Newspapers in Britain started printing pictures in the 1890s and television made the greatest impression of all after the Second World War.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>There was also a growing sense among the privileged - never completely absent in times past - that all human life was important.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Poor Law, initiated in the late years of the First Queen Elizabeth - although hardly intended - went some way to replacing the medieval pastoral care of the Catholic Church, nationalized in <span class=SpellE>th</span> 1530s by King Henry VIII, whose officials dissolved the monasteries.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We the people made our biggest impact through the extension of the right to vote for parliaments and assemblies of leading Western countries: Britain, the United States, France, Germany, <span class=GramE>Italy</span>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>By the early twentieth century, government needed to know more and more about us common people because, as voters, we made demands on the State, to which rulers had to respond or lose the next election. <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Governments also needed to know about the masses because many people, unconsidered hitherto, became income tax and ratepayers for the first time during the last years of the nineteenth century, as we remain, supplying most of the financial needs of government.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Now the masses cannot be ignored.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Time only started to be important in daily affairs for most people towards the end of the eighteenth century with the introduction of the division of labour in industrial practices - the production line - and the shift system, which required punctuality and 'clocking-on.'<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>By the 1850s, the need for railway timetables completed the time-keeping straitjacket.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>If our ancient ancestors could not count the years of their own birthdays, was there any conception of Time in the much broader context?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Roman Empire took its year dates from the legendary foundation of Rome by Romulus and <span class=SpellE>Remus</span> in the eighth century BC, but the years were probably of little interest outside aristocratic and educated circles.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The annual calendar became important because it marked festivals and feasts, when there might be free food, wine, games.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>For the political minority it was crucial to know the length of terms of office for appointees of the State.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Two of our months are still named after Roman rulers: July commemorating Julius Caesar, and August the Emperor Augustus.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Church required <span class=GramE>to know</span> the hours of the day because the Offices had to be called, usually by the tolling of a bell for the different religious services.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The tradition is maintained in many Anglican churches whose bell-ringers still summon the faithful to prayer or mark the sacrament of marriage.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Church had sundials, but candle-clocks in our period were the most useful.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>A candle was marked off by the hour as it burned down and, provided it was protected from draughts, it was fairly efficient.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A conception of time, learnt naturally by everyone in any agrarian society, would have been the seasons of the year, an intuitive knowledge that must surely go back to the mists of prehistory.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Most people probably did not know how old they were.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>#The idea that a year had a number was not thought of even in the writings of some of the educated in Britain, such as the early priestly chroniclers, or other writers in the centuries after the <span class=SpellE>the</span> Fall of Rome in what we know as the fifth century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The only reason we call it the fifth century and our present century the twenty-first is because of some little-known Greek theologian, Dionysius <span class=SpellE>Exiguus</span>, in what we call the sixth century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>He devised a method of dating the years and centuries from the Birth of Jesus Christ, which he called anno <span class=SpellE>domini</span> - the Year of Our Lord - the first year being Year One, of course, then two, three, 500, and so on.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We shorten this to AD and use AD before the numbers to differentiate them from BC, before Christ, devised by St Bede at a monastery in Northumbria.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Recently, some educated folk, strident atheists perhaps, secularists, the politically correct, ignoring familiarity and habit, now call AD CE, meaning Common Era.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>BC, by this reckoning, is now called BCE, Before Common Era.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Islamic year is 1432, used on many coins in Muslim countries, based on the date that the Prophet Muhammad fled Mecca.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There are other dating systems.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>In practice, the rest of the world now uses the AD-BC dating system contingently.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In fact, Dionysius <span class=SpellE><span class=GramE>Exiguus</span></span><span class=GramE>,</span> got it wrong, it is now generally agreed, and Christ was born in 4BC.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>But whether he got it wrong or not, Year One CE is still seen as the birth of Christ by people of every religion or no religion at all.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Whichever way I look at it, it is just plain daft to change terms we all take for granted - at least for now.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>No doubt I shall receive emails about this.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We left <span class=SpellE>Domesday</span> Book in the last episode when, if not a 'landscape plotted and pieced - fold, fallow, and plough,' as described in a poem by Gerard Manley Hopkins, the English countryside was ordered, calculated, Mrs Cox tells us, not in feet and yards - much less in metres and centimetres (for which we may thank or excoriate Napoleon Bonaparte who introduced metric measurement) - but in <span class=SpellE>ploughlands</span>, units of land that could be ploughed by a team of oxen in a season.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Woodland was often measured in the number of pigs it could support.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Rents could be paid in money, but more likely in kind.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Mrs Cox mentions a rental of 'a bundle of eels on Palm Sunday,' but the rents varied from place to place, depending on what was grown or reared and whether cash was available.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>You will see in the illustrations we are using how a plough and other farm implements looked and how people dressed: no tights, like Errol Flynn in Hollywood historical epics, but thick leggings and heavy over-garments.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The peasantry would have appeared very grey or brown, sombre.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The early Anglo-Saxon warlords would have worn some form of armour on their bodies and heads, mostly made of leather.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Later, we shall see some of the bodily accoutrements from gold and silver hordes, and hear of the magnificence of kings.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>You will also note from the pictures we shall be looking at how scrawny the animals and poultry were.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Ears of corn were similarly thin since cross-fertilization of cereals and the breeding of animals were unknown scientifically until the eighteenth century, though evidently inadvertently practised long before.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>There were wind- and watermills.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Outside the remaining Roman roads, the local roads were as dry as dust in summer and became swamps in winter.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This did not begin to change until the nineteenth century with the application of <span class=SpellE>Tarmacadam</span> <span class=GramE>-<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>'tarmac'</span> - invented by John <span class=SpellE>McAdam</span>, a Scotsman.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>In rural areas today, the actual layout of the roads and the land, and some buildings, is not very different from more than a thousand years ago.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Tracks or lanes might well have been established in the prehistoric period, and followed - except for their main roads - by Romans, Anglo-Saxons, and everyone else since, including local highway authorities which have tended to lay down <span class=SpellE>mettled</span> surfaces on previously unmade tracks.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Roads were, as they still are, determined by terrain: rivers and streams, by sharp escarpments.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Many medieval bridges remain and were wooden in Anglo-Saxon times before they were built in stone - most famously London Bridge which was not built on stone piers until the reign of King John at the beginning of the thirteenth century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>If water were shallow enough, a river or stream bed might serve as a ford.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Many fords survive.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Even if only made of wood for most of the Anglo-Saxon period, village churches were gradually replaced by stone ones by <span class=GramE>the<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Norman</span> or Plantagenet lord of the manor as his contribution to the Church and the redemption of his own and his family's souls.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Kings, great churchmen, and noblemen, of course, built cathedrals and abbeys of stone or <span class=SpellE>beautifed</span> existing ones.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Anglo-Saxon hall of wood often became the Norman manor house, many of which were later built of brick or stone as the country became richer.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>They frequently stand on the same spot as, or very close to, the Anglo-Saxon dwelling, as Tony Robinson's Time Team archaeology programme has shown us.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Manorial and parish boundaries into this twenty-first century are mostly much more ancient than people realize, and have been determined by manorial boundaries, watercourses, terrain, and locally important buildings for hundreds of years.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We are enmeshed in the history of geography.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Most houses - even many castles, palaces, and churches - were built of wood under the Anglo-Saxon monarchies, although the Normans would change that with their cathedral- and castle-building ambitions.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Our heritage of church buildings, the length and breadth of Britain, is wondrous, a testament not only to the wealth of England in particular, but to the devotion to Christianity and its promise of Redemption among all ranks of folk from the king down.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We also have the ruins of monasteries and other foundations, despoiled by the religious Reformation in England and Wales, and then Scotland in the sixteenth century, when popes were sacked in this island at the edge of the world.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Is there any ruin more heart-<span class=SpellE>breakingly</span> beautiful than Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire?<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>This is the end of the second episode.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In the next, I shall be setting the scene for the Roman Empire, of which the province of Britannia was part for nearly three hundred and fifty years.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The impact of Rome on our society today still resonates. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Copyright Robert Smith, Manorial Society of Great Britain</span></i><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:12;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:13;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:14;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;color:black;background:#FFFFCC'>The Manorial Society of Great Britain Ltd is a Company Limited by Guarantee<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;color:black;background:#FFFFCC'>Registered in England and Wales No: 3296984</span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language: EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:15;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:16;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes;height:12.0pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.0pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <![if !supportMisalignedColumns]> <tr height=0> <td width=106 style='border:none'></td> <td width=125 style='border:none'></td> <td width=238 style='border:none'></td> <td width=10 style='border:none'></td> <td width=250 style='border:none'></td> </tr> <![endif]> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof: yes'><span style='mso-tab-count:8'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing style='margin-left:234.0pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span></span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:9.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><b 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