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v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFFFCC" background="ateotw_episode4_files/image002.jpg" lang=EN-GB link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval:36.0pt'> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <v:background id="_x0000_s1025" o:bwmode="white" fillcolor="#ffc"> <v:fill src="ateotw_episode4_files/image002.jpg" o:title="Parchment" type="tile"/> </v:background></xml><![endif]--> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style='margin-left:13.7pt;border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:none;mso-border-insidev: none'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;height:12.75pt'> <td width=274 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:205.35pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:-4.3pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-add-space: auto;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>&lt;&lt; <a href="ateotw_episode3.html">Go to Episode 3</a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> <td width=274 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:205.35pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle align=center style='margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:-4.15pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="ateotw.html">Return to 'At The Edge Of The World' Episode Index</a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> <td width=274 valign=top style='width:205.4pt;border:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpLast align=right style='margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:54.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto;text-align:right;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="ateotw_episode5.html">Go to Episode 5</a> &gt;&gt;<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;height:12.75pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraph align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom: .0001pt;mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center;text-indent:-18.0pt;line-height: normal;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'><img width=22 height=35 src="ateotw_episode4_files/image001.jpg" alt="*"><span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span></span></span></span><![endif]><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>At the edge of the world  Episode 4<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></span></b><span style='mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/> <v:formulas> <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn 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Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2;height:12.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:3;height:14.1pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=bottom style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:14.1pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'><a href="http://youtu.be/b7Nf5akrg6U"><span style='color:black;mso-themecolor: text1'>Watch this episode in our YouTube channel</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:4'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:5'> <td width=538 colspan=3 valign=top style='width:403.5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <iframe width=560 height=315 src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/b7Nf5akrg6U" frameborder=0 allowfullscreen> </iframe> </td> <td width=283 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:212.6pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: EN-GB'>c700 to c1087: Chronicles and law codes<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'>Outlining the Anglo-Saxon background: the Romans evacuated Britannia at the end of the fourth century because Rome was under threat from so-called barbarians, and the six and a half centuries until the arrival of William the Conqueror have traditionally been called the Dark Ages.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>But how dark were they?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In fact, the Christian church survived and thrived in Rome, so that by the beginning of the seventh century, Christianity was re-established in south-east England and spread.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'>Written and presented by Robert Smith, Chairman of the Manorial Society of Great Britain - <span style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'><a href="index.html"><span style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'>www.msgb.co.uk</span></a></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language: EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:6;height:20.4pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:20.4pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:7;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:8;height:16.5pt'> <td width=134 valign=top style='width:100.3pt;border:none;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-right-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Credits:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Written and presented by<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Robert Smith<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Voice over<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Barney Powell<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Rebecca Cooper<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Music production &amp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Original music<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Simon Roberts<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>(Lyric media group)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Original film footage<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Picture editor<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Roberto <span class=SpellE>Ekholm</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Asst picture editor<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Guilfre</span></span><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> Jordan<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Associate Producer<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Producer<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Antonio <span class=SpellE>Parente</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td width=688 colspan=4 valign=top style='width:515.8pt;border:none; mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Picture sources:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Map of the Roman Empire under Augustus (31 BC  AD 14, became Emperor in 27BC). Yellow: 31BC. Dark Green 31 19 BC, Light Green 19 9 BC, Pale Green 9 6 BC. Mauve: Client states<u><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_province"><span style='color:blue'>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_province</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The famous helmet found at Sutton <span class=SpellE>Hoo</span> probably belonged to King <span class=SpellE>Raedwald</span> of East Anglia, who died in about 625 AD. Based on a Roman parade helmet design, it has decorations like those on contemporary Swedish helmets found at Old Uppsala.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Sutton <span class=SpellE>Hoo</span>, on the River Deben, Suffolk, has been described as 'the richest treasure from British soil.'<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Now on permanent display at the British Museum - <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Saxons">http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Saxons</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A map of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon <span class=SpellE>Heptarchy</span><u>,</u> about 790 - <a href="http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heptarchy"><span style='color:blue'>http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heptarchy</span></a><u><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Saxon_Chronicle"><span style='color:blue'>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Saxon_Chronicle</span></a><u><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A scriptorium monk at work.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Monks described this labour of transcribing manuscripts as being 'like prayer and fasting, a means of correcting one's unruly passions.'[58]<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ritual"><span style='color:blue'>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ritual</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Julius Caesar - <u><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_ancient_Rome">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_ancient_Rome</a><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A gathering of Anglo-Saxons - <u><a href="http://www.spanglefish.com/rulersofthesouthsaxons/"><span style='color:blue'>http://www.spanglefish.com/rulersofthesouthsaxons/</span></a></u><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A page from the [C] Abingdon II text of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This entry is for 871, a year of battles between Wessex and the Vikings.<u><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='font-size: 8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";color:blue'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Saxon_Chronicle">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Saxon_Chronicle</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Professor Michael Swanton (University of Exeter when he published his translation of the Anglo-Saxons Chronicles, 1996)inspects medieval murals discovered in Devon, England, 2008 <u><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Swanton"><span style='color:blue'>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Swanton</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A representation of Julius Caesar landing in Britain in 55 BC, published 1808 - <u><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://www.ancestryimages.com/proddetail.php?prod=f2136">http://www.ancestryimages.com/proddetail.php?prod=f2136</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A representation of St Bede translating the Gospel according to St John, 1902 -<u><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bede"><span style='color:blue'>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bede</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Statue of Alfred the Great at <span class=SpellE>Wantage</span>, Oxfordshire -<u><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_the_Great"><span style='color:blue'>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_the_Great</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>From the Chronicle of John of Worcester, sometimes called Florence of Worcester, was a Benedictine monk; his chronicle is known as 'A History of the Kings of England' and he died in about 1140 - <u><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Worcester#mediaviewer/File:Worcester.dream.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Worcester#mediaviewer/File:Worcester.dream.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Stained glass window showing the chronicler, William of <span class=SpellE>Malmesbury</span>; the glass installed in <span class=SpellE>Malmesbury</span> church in 1928 in memory of Rev Canon C D H McMillan, Vicar of <span class=SpellE>Malmesbury</span> from 1907 to 1919.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>William was a Benedictine monk, living in the first half of the 12th century; he was of mixed Norman and Saxon blood - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_of_Malmesbury"><span style='color:blue'>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_of_Malmesbury</span></a><u><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>thelstan</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The tomb of King Athelstan in <span class=SpellE>Malmesbury</span> Abbey, <span class=SpellE>Malmesbury</span>, England. There is nothing in the tomb beneath the sleeping <span class=SpellE>efigy</span> of the king, his relics having been lost at the Dissolution of the Monastery in 1539.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Perhaps the remains were destroyed by the Henry VIII's Commissioners or they were hidden before the Commissioners arrived to close down the Abbey. - <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:King.athelstan.tomb.arp.jpg"><span style='color:blue'>http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:King.athelstan.tomb.arp.jpg</span></a><u><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A map showing the places where the various chronicles were written, and where they are now kept. - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Saxon_Chronicle"><span style='color:blue'>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Saxon_Chronicle</span></a><u><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Modern view of Winchester city centre from St Giles's Hill<u><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winchester"><span style='color:blue'>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winchester</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Canterbury Cathedral - <a href="file:///E:\Antonio%20credits\%22http:\en.wikipedia.org\wiki\City_of_Canter"><span style='color:blue'>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_of_Canterbury</span></a><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='color:blue'><o:p></o:p></span></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='font-size: 8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";color:blue'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'>A priest writing - </span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; color:blue'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuscript_culture">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuscript_culture</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>An illustration, made in 1868, of Augustine addressing the Saxons - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saxons"><span style='color:blue'>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saxons</span></a><u><o:p></o:p></u></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A monk inspecting a sheet of parchment which he is buying from a parchment-maker - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuscript_culture"><span style='color:blue'>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuscript_culture</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='font-size: 8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";color:blue'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'>Opening folio of the code - <span class=SpellE>wot</span> code?</span><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";color:blue'> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_%C3%86thelberht%20???">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_%C3%86thelberht ???</a><o:p></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u style='text-underline:blue'><span style='font-size: 8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";color:blue'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'>Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, given a late Gothic setting in this illumination from the <span class=SpellE>Livre</span> des Passages <span class=SpellE>d'Outre-mer</span>, of about 1474 (<span class=SpellE>Bibliothque</span> National, Paris); the Pope summoned the Council in southern France in 1095 to pass reforming canons (Church legislation) and to preach the First Crusade, which led to the capture of Jerusalem from the Muslims (Seljuk Turks) in 1099, and Baldwin of Flanders was crowned king the following year.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Christians held the city until 1187 when it was re-taken for Islam by Saladin (a Kurd); and was not held again by Christians until 1918 when it was conquered by the British; the British withdrew in 1948 and Jerusalem is now the capital of the state of Israel -<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; color:blue'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_of_Clermont"><span style='color:blue'>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_of_Clermont</span></a></span><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A representation of <span class=SpellE>Notker</span> <span class=SpellE>Balbulus</span> (the <span class=SpellE>Stammerer</span>), author of the Acts of Charlemagne; lived about 840-912 - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notker_the_Stammerer"><span style='color:blue'>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notker_the_Stammerer</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><u><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p><span style='text-decoration:none'>&nbsp;</span></o:p></span></u></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Preaching from a medieval pulpit - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homiletics"><span style='color:blue'>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homiletics</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A gathering of Anglo-Saxons - <a href="http://www.spanglefish.com/rulersofthesouthsaxons/"><span style='color:blue'>http://www.spanglefish.com/rulersofthesouthsaxons/</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Cathedral of Saint-<span class=SpellE>Gatian</span> in Tours (France).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tours_Cathedral_Saint-Gatian.jpg"><span style='color:blue'>http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tours_Cathedral_Saint-Gatian.jpg</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Handcuffed Briton - <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Handcuffed_man.jpg"><span style='color:blue'>http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Handcuffed_man.jpg</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Shop entrance to <span class=SpellE>Foyles</span> in Charing Cross Road, Central London<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Foyles_new_shop_entrance.JPG"><span style='color:blue'>http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Foyles_new_shop_entrance.JPG</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Recent excavations at Sutton <span class=SpellE>Hoo</span> have revealed a figure that had been rolled into a shallow grave - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sutton_Hoo">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sutton_Hoo</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Tony Robinson speaking at Hyde Park, London, in 2010 -<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tony_Robinson"><span style='color:blue'>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tony_Robinson</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>View of the nave of St Martin's, Tours, whose most famous bishop was Gregory of Tours in the sixth century - <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tours_Cathedral"><span style='color:blue'>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tours_Cathedral</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>John White Alexander, Manuscript Book mural (1896), Library of Congress, Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington DC - <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scriptorium">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scriptorium</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:9;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:16.5pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:10;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:11;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Episode transcript:<o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Roman background was sketched last time; now we have to start to outline the Anglo-Saxon to explain, first, how we come by our historical information.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We are lucky to have what is called the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to help with the earlier history of the English.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Its authors attempted to cover more than a thousand years. <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span>It has news from other countries, even Rome and Constantinople.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>I say Chronicle, when perhaps I mean chronicles.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The translation and edition that I have used, by Professor Michael Swanton, dates from 1996, and is titled The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>It is usually just called the Chronicle with a capital 'C', and it covers almost 300 years of Anglo-Saxon contemporary times - that is those events written up shortly after they happened.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>There are included many centuries of events from Julius Caesar's invasion of Britain in 55BC.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>These were lifted from earlier writers.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>One of these was Bede, whom we've mentioned - much of whose early information was taken from Roman authors<span class=GramE>,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>but</span> there are others.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Bede was writing in the first third of the eight century, roughly 700 to 735.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Chronicle was very probably the brainchild of King Alfred the Great, who reigned for a little over the last quarter of the ninth century, from 871 to 899.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Once we reach Anglo-Saxon contemporary times, the Chronicle becomes a primary source.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Some later chronicles, law codes, charters are also primary sources.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Later histories written much more recently are known as secondary sources.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We shall also be using chroniclers who like John of Worcester, William of <span class=SpellE>Malmesbury</span>, <span class=GramE>Roger</span> of <span class=SpellE>Wendover</span>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>I shall identify the sources as they occur.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Some of these are particularly useful because they contain information not in the Anglo-Saxon or other chronicles.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>William of <span class=SpellE>Malmesbury</span> is extraordinarily useful, and has unique information on the 10th century Saxon kings, especially <span class=SpellE>Aethelstan</span>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It must be that he had access to sources in his day that have since been lost.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It must also be that there is much more lost than has survived.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>So William of <span class=SpellE>Malmesbury</span> is both a primary and a secondary source.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was not compiled in one place, but was a series of writings, or annals of events by different scribes arranged chronologically by year.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It is fairly terse.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There are five main manuscripts, named after the religious institutions where they were compiled.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>These are: Winchester, Canterbury, Peterborough, Worcester, and Abingdon.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Professor Swanton tells us that he entitled his edition of the Chronicle in the plural because there are five editorial centres.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It appears that there were attempts at some kind of central editing, perhaps at Canterbury or at Winchester.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The five houses seem to have made copies which were circulated among themselves and probably sent to others.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Each centre also has information special to its own area, not found in the other four versions.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>There are some contemporary biographies and hagiographies, best known being the life of King Alfred by his friend and associate, Bishop Asser, a Welshman.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Perhaps dating from the early seventh century, English rulers probably disseminated their laws to religious foundations for local use, while possibly keeping a kind of central chancery of dooms, grants of lands and privileges, records of meetings of the great when England was a collection of chieftainships, or kingdoms in embryo.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>These chieftains, or kings, were shown the importance of written law and other state records by Christian priests sent from Rome, and later by English monks and priests, and we shall meet many of these characters as our story unfolds.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>What is also important is to understand that there was no written Anglo-Saxon language until the arrival of Christian missionaries in Kent, who used the Roman or Latin alphabet to render Anglo-Saxon words visually onto paper, or onto specially treated animal skins known as parchment.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Of final importance is that priests and monks were literate, educated - the only group of people who were - and this would make them indispensable to the functioning of the early rudimentary governments.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>While all of the originals of the Chronicle, the first law codes - including the earliest one known from Kent - and similar records are lost, some survived long enough to be copied out generations afterwards by monks, particularly in the 11th and 12th centuries, which is how we have the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the Laws of <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span> of Kent in about 610, and of later rulers.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>There are some letters, mostly between priests and monks; but also between kings; records of conventions, known as councils or synods of the Church which shed light.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We shall also have resort to foreign chronicles, letters, and other documents that give us a view of Britain from abroad.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>One such will be <span class=SpellE>Notker</span> the <span class=SpellE>Stammerer</span> who today, I suppose, would have to be known as <span class=SpellE>Notker</span> the Orally Challenged.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>On the other side of the Channel, Frankish kings had a similar kind of history as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, known as The Royal Annals.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The moment law was written down and copies of it circulated to other Church centres - monasteries, abbeys - and even though the laity <span class=GramE>were</span> illiterate, the law could be made known to them and interpreted for them in church.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There was no excuse, therefore, for anyone - certainly, anyone of importance - to claim as a defence, ignorance of the law.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>This is encapsulated in the Latin expression, <span class=SpellE>ignorantia</span> <span class=SpellE>juris</span> <span class=SpellE>neminem</span> <span class=SpellE>excusat</span>, which still of the greatest legal moment to this day.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Writing down law also meant that law-givers had to think about what was illegal - the implications of crime and their response to it.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>This is the philosophy of the law, what we call jurisprudence.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Not even the Anglo-Saxon law-giver was above the law, and laws seem usually to have been promulgated at national meetings of the elite at least.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Sometimes, so many people attended that these meetings were held outside.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We shall attend, as it were, some of them.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Very broadly, English law defines what is illegal, not what is legal.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>In France which, in 600, was known as the kingdom of the Franks, we shall encounter some of their rulers, bishops, noblemen because political, religious, commercial, social, cultural intercourse between the Frankish and British kingdoms was wide-ranging.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Frankish language was also rendered into written form under the tutelage of the Church a few decades earlier than in Anglo-Saxon Kent, where the Church obtained its first English foothold.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>But law took a different course in one very important respect in the later kingdom of France - French law-givers told the people what was legal, as they continue to tell the people.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>This may seem no more than a play on words, a rose by another name, but the difference is crucial when you think about it.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>If English law is silent on an activity, carrying out that activity is legal.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>If French law is silent on an activity, then the activity is illegal.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Law that emanates from the European Union follows the French model.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This is known as corpus <span class=SpellE>juris</span> and is - hardly noticed by anyone - superseding English law.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>But you may have heard of British folk being carted off to Bucharest or Warsaw, on an arrest warrant from Romania or Poland, to face charges for activities that break no laws in Britain.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>History depends on the sources, and law is the fundamental pillar of our knowledge because it gives us an insight into men's thinking on matters of right and wrong, the eternal question, which Christianity - all the religions the world over - claim to answer.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>At the very end of this history, I shall give a list of some of these primary sources which are available in modern English texts, as also a list of recent histories by our most eminent medievalists, and other histories I've consulted.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>I've been able to check facts in a number of very useful historical dictionaries, such as of people of the ancient or classical world, Greek mythology, of saints of the Church, popes, of other religions, especially Islam.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Islam bore heavily on Christendom for much of our period and might even have overwhelmed it.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>At the end, I shall also give the name of the author, the title of the book, by whom published, where and at what date, which you will be able to print off on your PC in case you want to do further reading.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Many of the books are in print and can be ordered from your bookshop or on Amazon.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Others will need a good central library in your city, state, or province; and a few will require one of the national libraries.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The pictures we are looking at will also be listed at the end in the order they appeared.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Each image with be briefly described and its location given in case you want to see it in situ.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>This series is also building up into a library, so if you came in on this fourth episode, and would like to watch the first three, you can go to the library and run the ones you missed.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>I must also mention archaeology.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Very high training today in archaeological disciplines - the coming together of experts from different historical backgrounds - new scientific processes are enabling archaeologists to produce information that just wasn't <span class=SpellE>diggable-uppable</span>, even 30 years ago.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>As I watch the excellent Time Team archaeological programmes of Tony Robinson's on British television's Channel 4, historical understanding seems to be increasing before my eyes.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>And historiography - how we view and interpret the past - is like a continuous revolution in knowledge.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The documents are very scanty for our period and archaeology is filling some of the gaps, or modifying our earlier understanding.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>I dare say that some of what I have to say will be out of date by the time I get to end.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Finally, as we've said, the contemporary chronicles, and those a century or so later are almost entirely written by the clergy.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>They are, therefore, advertisements for Christianity.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In reaching for an interpretation of events more than a thousand years ago, we need, in a way, to read between the lines.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>This is not so hard because, in our daily lives, we are all used to newspapers, television, and other reports - from the United Nations to our local town government - writing about things from their perspective, or slant.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We cannot see reality directly and there is no such thing as the 'whole truth.'<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The reason that fantasies and even outright lies are believed is because they are comforting.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>All any reasonable person can do is to interpret the facts with a good heart.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The next episode will reveal the Saxon scholar-king who decided that a national narrative was wanted, which is now known as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Copyright Robert Smith, Manorial Society of Great Britain</span></i><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:12;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:13;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:14;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;color:black;background:#FFFFCC'>The Manorial Society of Great Britain Ltd is a Company Limited by Guarantee<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;color:black;background:#FFFFCC'>Registered in England and Wales No: 3296984</span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language: EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:15;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:16;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes;height:12.0pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.0pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <![if !supportMisalignedColumns]> <tr height=0> <td width=119 style='border:none'></td> <td width=117 style='border:none'></td> <td width=228 style='border:none'></td> <td width=10 style='border:none'></td> <td width=255 style='border:none'></td> </tr> <![endif]> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof: yes'><span style='mso-tab-count:8'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing style='margin-left:234.0pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><span 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