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<o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFFFCC" background="ateotw_episode7_files/image002.jpg" lang=EN-GB link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval:36.0pt'> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <v:background id="_x0000_s1025" o:bwmode="white" fillcolor="#ffc"> <v:fill src="ateotw_episode7_files/image002.jpg" o:title="Parchment" type="tile"/> </v:background></xml><![endif]--> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style='margin-left:13.7pt;border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:none;mso-border-insidev: none'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;height:12.75pt'> <td width=274 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:205.35pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:-4.3pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-add-space: auto;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>&lt;&lt; <a href="ateotw_episode6.html">Go to Episode 6</a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> <td width=274 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:205.35pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle align=center style='margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:-4.15pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="ateotw.html">Return to 'At The Edge Of The World' Episode Index</a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> <td width=274 valign=top style='width:205.4pt;border:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpLast align=right style='margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:54.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto;text-align:right;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="ateotw_episode8.html">Go to Episode 8</a> &gt;&gt;<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;height:12.75pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraph align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom: .0001pt;mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center;text-indent:-18.0pt;line-height: normal;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'><img width=22 height=35 src="ateotw_episode7_files/image001.jpg" alt="*"><span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span></span></span></span><![endif]><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>At the edge of the world  Episode 7<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></span></b><span style='mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/> 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style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2;height:12.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:3;height:14.1pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=bottom style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:14.1pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'><a href="http://youtu.be/JGEwSQrwOcc"><span style='color:black;mso-themecolor: text1'>Watch this episode in our YouTube channel</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:4'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:5'> <td width=538 colspan=3 valign=top style='width:403.5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <iframe width=560 height=315 src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/JGEwSQrwOcc" frameborder=0 allowfullscreen> </iframe> </td> <td width=283 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:212.6pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: EN-GB'>5th-6th centuries: who were the invaders of Britain?<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'>The Anglo-Saxons arrived in England in about 455.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>What do we mean when we speak of kings and kingdoms in Britain in the early centuries of Anglo-Saxon rule?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>They were not organized like the Roman Empire, which had laws and whose rulers and governors administered by the written word, only occasionally having to resort to violence to enforce their demands.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>To become remotely governable, Anglo-Saxon, the language, had to be rendered into an alphabet.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'>Written and presented by Robert Smith, Chairman of the Manorial Society of Great Britain - <span style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'><a href="index.html"><span style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'>www.msgb.co.uk</span></a></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language: EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:6;height:20.4pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:20.4pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:7;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:8;height:16.5pt'> <td width=134 valign=top style='width:100.3pt;border:none;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-right-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Credits:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Written and presented by<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Robert Smith<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Voice over<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Barney Powell<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Rebecca Cooper<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Music production &amp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Original music<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Simon Roberts<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>(Lyric media group)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Original film footage<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Picture editor<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Roberto <span class=SpellE>Ekholm</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Asst picture editor<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Guilfre</span></span><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> Jordan<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Associate Producer<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Producer<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Antonio <span class=SpellE>Parente</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td width=688 colspan=4 valign=top style='width:515.8pt;border:none; mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Picture sources:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Remigius</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> of Reims baptizes Clovis, first King of the Franks, c 525, <span class=SpellE>foumder</span> of the Merovingian dynasty - <span class=SpellE>Grandes</span> <span class=SpellE>Chroniques</span> de France, Matre du <span class=SpellE>couronnement</span> de Charles VI.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b84472995/f32.image.r=grandes%20chroniquess%20de%20france.langFR">http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b84472995/f32.image.r=grandes%20chroniquess%20de%20france.langFR</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The deposition of <span class=SpellE>Childeric</span> III, last of the Merovingian kings.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This line of monarchs is known as the 'Long Haired Kings', the length of their hair figuratively denoting their strength and valour.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In this picture, <span class=SpellE>Childeric</span> is tonsured in preparation for a monastic life, but this public act must also have been symbolical of the demise of the dynasty. From the book 'Bien <span class=SpellE>Connaitre</span> les <span class=SpellE>Gnalogies</span> des <span class=SpellE>Rois</span> de France', Jean-Charles Volkmann. Originally from '<span class=SpellE>L'Histoire</span> de France <span class=SpellE>Populaire</span>', Henri Martin, 1876.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Childeric_III">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Childeric_III</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The 'New Rome', Aachen Cathedral North View, the Emperor Charlemagne's 'private chapel', which can still be seen in this German city.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It is octagonal (the same shape as the imperial crown), and was built about 800.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It is now incorporated in the Gothic cathedral, built in about 1350:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aachen">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aachen</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>This illustration of Pope Zacharias, who recognized Pippin's succession as King of the Franks after <span class=SpellE>Childeric's</span> deposition is from 'The Lives and Times of the Popes' by Chevalier <span class=SpellE>Artaud</span> de <span class=SpellE>Montor</span>, New York: The Catholic Publication Society of America, 1911.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It was originally published in 1842.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pope_Zachary_Illustration.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pope_Zachary_Illustration.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Detail from Lambeth Palace Library MS 6 folio 43v illustrating an episode in Geoffrey of Monmouth's '<span class=SpellE>Historia</span> <span class=SpellE>Regum</span> <span class=SpellE>Britanniae</span>' in which <span class=SpellE>Vortigern</span> meets the young Merlin, who explains that an underground fight between red and white dragons is causing <span class=SpellE>Vortigern's</span> fortress to collapse.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The scene is fictional, like most of the '<span class=SpellE>Historia</span>', but demonstrates that even 600 years after his death, <span class=SpellE>Vortigern</span> was remembered as the last British king who fell before the first Anglo-Saxons. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vortigern">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vortigern</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Medieval bridge over the River Medway at Aylesford, Kent, where the British were finally defeated in the south-east by the Anglo-Saxons.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span class=SpellE>Vortigern</span> may have died in the battle or shortly after.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There was no bridge in the fifth century and the crossing would probably have been a ford.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>&quot; <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aylesford">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aylesford</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Elizabeth_II_greets_NASA_GSFC_employees,_May_8,_2007_edit.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Elizabeth_II_greets_NASA_GSFC_employees,_May_8,_2007_edit.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Diana Princess of Wales:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diana,_Princess_of_Wales">http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diana,_Princess_of_Wales</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>President Ronald Reagan (1981-89) who said: 'It is time for us to realize that we're too great a nation to limit ourselves to small dreams.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span><a href="http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Ronald_Reagan">http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Ronald_Reagan</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A gold solidus of Emperor <span class=SpellE>Valentinian</span> I (r in Rome, 364-75), who <span class=SpellE>skillfully</span> preserved northern Italy from barbarian (Goth) invasion<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valentinian_I">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valentinian_I</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Imperial portrait of the Byzantine Emperor Leo I, the Thracian, at the Louvre Museum, Paris, France.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_I_the_Thracian">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_I_the_Thracian</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Charlemagne instructing his son, who succeeded to his father's throne as Louis the Pious; such sobriquet or nicknames <span class=GramE>were</span> not necessarily flattery.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This Emperor was deeply religious, which did not stop him, or most other rulers of the time and since, from dealing harshly and terminally with his enemies.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Weak rulers got overthrown, still do, <span class=GramE>though</span> nowadays in the democracies are likely to be free to write their memoirs afterwards. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Dress of Roman <span class=SpellE>Lictor</span>: Rome was an empire built on written law and even Caligula got the Senate to enact law that was intended to be drastic before he carried out his action, although emperors sometimes had occasion to legalize an act retrospectively.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Here, the <span class=SpellE>Lictor</span> holds the fasces (<span class=SpellE>pron</span> '<span class=SpellE>faskez</span>') representing the ability of the State to use coercion to secure obedience.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>All states use coercion which is why, for example, folk who defraud the British Treasury of tax <span class=GramE>are</span> likely to spend time in jail.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The word 'fascist' emanates from the fasces of the Roman Senate.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Note that inside the sticks (representing corporal punishment) is an axe representing capital punishment:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Roman_Lictor_Clothes.png">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Roman_Lictor_Clothes.png</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Detail of a miniature of Archbishop Arundel preaching about the wrongs done to Henry of Lancaster.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/illuminatedmanuscripts/ILLUMIN.ASP?Size=mid&amp;IllID=37305">http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/illuminatedmanuscripts/ILLUMIN.ASP?Size=mid&amp;IllID=37305</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Marriage between two Roman citizens; mural of a sarcophagus in the Museum of <span class=SpellE>Capodimonte</span>, near Naples, Italy.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrimonio_en_la_Antigua_Roma">http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrimonio_en_la_Antigua_Roma</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Justinian, Emperor of <span class=GramE>the<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Roman</span> (Byzantine) Empire (r 525-65), centring on Constantinople.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justinian_I <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Theodora, wife of Justinian (above), Empress of the Roman (Byzantine) Empire.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Until their last gasp in 1453, emperors in Constantinople always called themselves - on their coins, in their laws - Roman emperors, claiming a direct line back to Julius Caesar, Augustus, and other great predecessors.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It is historians much later who called them Byzantine emperors and the empire the Byzantine Empire, after Byzantium, the former name for Constantinople.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>After the Fall of Rome in 411, we shall call them Byzantine emperors.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This and the foregoing picture are contemporary mosaic creations from <span class=GramE>the<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Basilica</span> of San Vitale, Ravenna, the headquarters of the Byzantine emperor in Italy.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodora_(wife_of_Justinian_I)">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodora_(wife_of_Justinian_I)</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Statue of <span class=SpellE>Pepin</span>, or Pippin the Younger in Wurzburg, Germany.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepin_the_Short">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepin_the_Short</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Le <span class=SpellE>dernier</span> des <span class=SpellE>Mrovingiens</span> (the last of the <span class=SpellE>Merovingians</span>) by <span class=SpellE>variste</span> Vital <span class=SpellE>Luminais</span> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Childeric_III">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Childeric_III</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Pope Zacharias visiting the Lombard king Rachis, who reigned from 744 to 749, and briefly again in 756-7.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Lombard (north Italian) ruler was besieging Perugia, in central Italy.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>No doubt the Pope, aware of how close to Rome King Rachis was, thought that a friendly visit would do no harm at all<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Zachary">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Zachary</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Coronation in 751 of Pippin the Younger by Boniface, Archbishop of Mainz.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Boniface was probably born in <span class=SpellE>Crediton</span>, Devon, and we shall meet him later.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He was probably the most important Christian <span class=SpellE>evanelist</span> in this period.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepin_the_Short">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepin_the_Short</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Kirk Douglas, founder of a modern dynasty of actors:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirk_Douglas">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirk_Douglas</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Donald_Trump</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>, founder of a modern dynasty with interests in worldwide hotel chains: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Trump">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Trump</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Empress Theodora and her court, Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna: <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ravenna_San_Vitale_Todora.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ravenna_San_Vitale_Todora.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Organized government: John II <span class=SpellE>Komnenos</span>, Byzantine Emperor: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_II_Komnenos <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A reconstruction of a Roman Villa at Borg.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Although this work was carried out in Germany, Roman villas appear to have followed a '<span class=SpellE>masterplan</span>', the main variation being their size:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Roman_Villa_Borg,_Germany_(9291225215).jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Roman_Villa_Borg,_Germany_(9291225215).jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Hypothetical costumes of Anglo Saxon warriors:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://deadliestblogpage.wordpress.com/2012/10/26/the-age-of-arthur-part-seventeen/1-anglo-saxon-warriors-3/">http://deadliestblogpage.wordpress.com/2012/10/26/the-age-of-arthur-part-seventeen/1-anglo-saxon-warriors-3/</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Depiction of <span class=SpellE>thelwulf</span>, King of Wessex and father of Alfred the Great, by an unknown 18th-century <span class=GramE>artist .</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86thelwulf_of_Wessex">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86thelwulf_of_Wessex</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Modern representation of an Anglo-Saxon <span class=SpellE>thegn</span> taking an oath of fealty to his war leader or king, cover scanned from a Hachette book 'Life in the time of the barbarian kingdoms':<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="https://www.pinterest.com/pin/396105729697309276/">https://www.pinterest.com/pin/396105729697309276/</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Richard Wagner (1813-83), the great composer whose operas harked back to the ancient German past with operas such as <span class=SpellE>Lohengrin</span>, part of the Ring Cycle, <span class=SpellE>Tannhauser</span>, Tristan and <span class=SpellE>Isolde</span>, perhaps most famously The <span class=SpellE>Valkerie</span>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He became the composer of choice of the Nazis in between 1933 and 1945.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He founded the <span class=SpellE>Beyreuth</span> Festival in the Bavarian town of that name with support from King Ludwig II in 1876, a festival that continues every three years and is still run by his descendants.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Like most people, Wagner was also a maker of a dynasty: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Wagner">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Wagner</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A tentative map of the <span class=SpellE>Hwicce</span> kingdom in the south-west Midlands:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hwicce_kingdom.png <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A coin believed to have been minted by <span class=SpellE>Guthrum</span>, Alfred the <span class=SpellE>Great's</span> great Viking enemy, whom Alfred <span class=SpellE>evetually</span> defeated.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span class=SpellE>Guthrun</span> was recognized as some sort of king in East Anglia, was baptized, with King Alfred as his sponsor, and took the name <span class=SpellE>Aethelstan</span>:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guthrum">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guthrum</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span>Statue of Queen Bertha of Kent, <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht's</span> wife, daughter of <span class=SpellE>Charibert</span>, King of the Franks.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Statue by Steven Melton photographed by Les Willis; stands on Lady <span class=SpellE>Wootton's</span> Green at Canterbury:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bertha_of_Kent">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bertha_of_Kent</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Charibert</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> I, King of the Franks; a much later portrait by Jean-<span class=SpellE>Jospeh</span> <span class=SpellE>Dassy</span> (1796-1867); may be seen at the Palace of Versailles, <span class=SpellE>Muse</span> National du Chateau et des <span class=SpellE>Trianons</span>, France:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charibert_I">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charibert_I</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Rdburh</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>, niece of the Emperor Charlemagne, who married <span class=SpellE>Ecgberht</span>, King of Wessex (r 802-839), a very good marriage for one of a number of English kings at this time, principally of Mercia and Northumbria.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>By this marriage she was the mother of King <span class=SpellE>Aethelwulf</span> and grandmother of King Alfred the Great:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://www.geni.com/people/R%C3%A6dburh/6000000003827043273">http://www.geni.com/people/R%C3%A6dburh/6000000003827043273</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Ecgberht</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>. King of Wessex, See <span class=SpellE>Raedburh</span> immediately above:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egbert_of_Wessex">http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egbert_of_Wessex</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The remains of what has been identified by <span class=SpellE>archaelogists</span> as a bathhouse at <span class=SpellE>Vindolanda</span>, an important Roman station or fort, on Hadrian's Wall:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vindolanda">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vindolanda</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>An English field today, laid out as if it were an agricultural unit in the early medieval period:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://theelysiumtheatrecompany.wordpress.com/2011/10/31/the-history-and-archaeology-of-medieval-england-part-one/">http://theelysiumtheatrecompany.wordpress.com/2011/10/31/the-history-and-archaeology-of-medieval-england-part-one/</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A map showing the disintegration of Roman rule in Britain, 383-410:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/End_of_Roman_rule_in_Britain">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/End_of_Roman_rule_in_Britain</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A representation of St Bede translating the Gospel according to St John by J D Penrose (c 1902): <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bede">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bede</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Fourth century Chi-Rho fresco from Roman Villa at <span class=SpellE>Lullingstone</span>, Kent, which contains the only known Christian paintings from the Roman era in Britain.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>A Chi-Rho image is one of the earliest forms of <span class=SpellE>christogram</span>, super-imposing the two capital letters 'chi' and rho (XP) to form the word Christ in Greek: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Britain">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Britain</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:9;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:16.5pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:10;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:11;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Episode transcript:<o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>What was meant by historians fifteen hundred years ago when they wrote of kings and kingdoms?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Today, most people around the world see the British kingdom - the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland - as the super-kingdom, its throne occupied by the super-royal, its inheritance the natural order of things.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This order is hardly questioned outside Britain, and not very much inside, now that Princess Diana's character is better known, and she increasingly becomes an historical figure.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Even the outpouring of grief for her in 1997 was hardly about getting rid of the kingdom - for some, it was no more than jumping the succession to exclude Prince Charles - although the worst opinion poll for him at the time was down to 64% in favour of his succeeding his mother - a rating that an incumbent prime minister or American president would give his right arm for.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The word 'kingdom' is used in several ways in the early Anglo-Saxon centuries.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>First, it is used of the Roman Empire, as in, 'and <span class=SpellE>Martianus</span> and <span class=SpellE>Valentinian</span> succeeded to the kingdom,' a line quoted from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the last Episode.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It is also used of Rome's successor state, the Eastern Empire, based on Constantinople, from the fifth century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Finally, it is used of the Western, or Holy Roman Empire, established by Charlemagne in 800, with its capital at Aachen, western Germany.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The three Roman empires have features we can recognize as being organized government.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>All were continuous until their fall.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Their kings or emperors inherited written codes of law, to which they added, or they wrote their own law codes.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>They ruled by writ, or by writing, so there were bureaucracies of literate men to make imperial law effectual.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Because law was written down, educated men knew what was lawful and what was not, and the elements would have reached all society.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Indeed, the existence of established bureaucracies enabled government to function in those inevitable periods when a hopeless king inherited the throne.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The gathering of taxes was a daily component of people's lives.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The royal authority was transmitted by a clear descent either in a family, or by marriage into a ruling family, and exercised by what are sometimes called today <span class=SpellE>apparachiks</span>, who had a vested interest in the continuity of their jobs and power, as such people still do. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>There were exceptions.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>An important one was Justinian, Emperor of the East at Constantinople, in the sixth century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He re-conquered much of Italy and North Africa, produced a law code, reformed his Church, and is magnificently commemorated with his wife Theodora in two mosaic reliefs at Ravenna, his capital in Italy.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In the West, there is Charlemagne himself, who created the Holy Roman Empire by continuing conquests begun by his father.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He was the son of Pippin the Short, who had been mayor of the palace to the Merovingian kings of the Franks, later the French.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>For the previous century, the Merovingian family had feuded, and the mayor of the palace became the power in the land.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Charles Martel, whom we met in Episode Three as the victor of Poitiers, against the Muslims, in 732, was mayor of the palace.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>His son Pippin deposed <span class=SpellE>Childeric</span> III, the last Merovingian king of the Franks.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>What Charlemagne's father Pippin lacked in family descent, he got from Rome when Pope Zacharias gave his blessing to regime change, to employ the modern expression<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Ever practical, Rome supported the power on the ground, and Pippin became king.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>All of these rulers were also protectors of, and were protected by, a Christian Church, one of whose tenets was Christ's exhortation to 'render unto Caesar that which is Caesar's' - although the predicate, 'and unto God that which is God's,' was usually forgotten in the dynastic cut and thrust of politics.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Custom, respect, and even tyranny tend to support religion.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Nothing much changes.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>For dynasties today read political families and parties, media and banking empires, or the dynasties of stage and screen, where aristocracies thrive, and whose individual names easily drop off the tongue in our modern world.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In the early centuries AD, emperors succeeded to great empires and cities, and could mobilize money and labour to beautify them in brick and carved stone and fabulous interiors over many years.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Charlemagne began at Aachen, and we are left, more than twelve hundred years later, with the remains of the symbols of his power and magnificence.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Display is a critical attribute of monarchy.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Kingdom is also used indiscriminately in chronicles because it was not always easy to find the correct word for a warlord's sphere of authority.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>So when the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that '<span class=SpellE>Hengest</span> and <span class=SpellE>Aesc</span> his son succeeded to the kingdom,' it cannot mean that they succeeded to anything remotely as organized as the Roman Empire had been when Britannia was a province, or as organized as the kingdom of Wessex had become by King Alfred's death in 899.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>When the Romans left Britannia at the end of the fourth century, the remains of the tax system would have died instantly, the rule of written law would have atrophied over perhaps a longer period, and the better off Romano-Britons would have repaired to their villas to become the sitting ducks of warlords, who led the conquest of the island At the Edge of the World in the fifth century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Kingdom seems to have been a convenient term that everyone would have understood, and was probably applied to any area under the domination of a leader of a band of armed men, whose chief was usually referred to as a 'king.'<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Similarly, 'princes of the Angle race' are unlikely to have had the same meaning in the fifth century as at the end of the ninth, when the Chronicle was begun, and when being 'of the Blood' had become legally relevant to the succession.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Even before King Alfred's reign, male members of the king's family were called '<span class=SpellE>aethlings</span>' - what we might call 'royal highnesses' - literally, they were 'throne-worthy.'<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Alfred himself was the youngest of King <span class=SpellE>Aethelwulf's</span> four sons, each of whom in order of seniority succeeded peacefully to Wessex.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Royalty in the sense of lawful descent was well known and cherished among the pagan German incomers of the fifth and sixth centuries, but leadership was also based on whether one was a successful warlord.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Within a chieftain's family, there would very likely have been a member or two who was ready to fill a vacancy - or even to create one.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>As the chronicler, William of <span class=SpellE><span class=GramE>Malmesbury</span></span><span class=GramE>,</span> puts it: 'sedition always has adherents.'<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The literature of the German Romantic movement, from the 1780s, harked back to this ancient past, and was disseminated to all through Wagnerian opera.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We also come across men described as kings of the <span class=SpellE>Hwicca</span> people in Warwickshire and Worcestershire, of Lindsey, in Lincolnshire, of Elmet, in west Yorkshire.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We shall meet <span class=SpellE>Guthrum</span>, King Alfred's mortal Viking enemy, who is called king, but it is hard to say whether he was a real king - in a period when kingship was becoming more than merely a warlord.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Perhaps another test of an established monarchy in these early centuries after Rome is from whom their kings were descended and whom they married.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The first Christian king of Kent, <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span>, had married Bertha, daughter of the Christian King <span class=SpellE>Charibert</span>, of the Franks.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>A power struggle in Wessex at the end of the eighth century obliged the future King <span class=SpellE>Ecgberht</span> to seek protection at Charlemagne's court in Germany, where he married the Emperor's great niece <span class=SpellE>Raedburh</span>. <span class=SpellE>Ecgberht</span> eventually succeeded to Wessex in 802 and reigned until 839.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>In Blood Royal, Charles Mosley describes this king as ancestor of every royal and princely house in Europe - surely, genealogy was the crucial element that made true kingship.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Bede himself seems not always to be of one mind on whether an area was a kingdom or a province: he often speaks of his own Northumbria as a province.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The opening annals of the Winchester version of the Chronicle tell us other things about Britain at this time of flux.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Britons, under <span class=SpellE>Vortigern</span>, were experiencing challenges to their authority from the <span class=SpellE>Picts</span> of Caledonia (modern Scotland).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Rome, the former imperial power, was unable to help him and <span class=SpellE>Vortigern</span> turned to the Angles in southern Denmark for assistance.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The last of the regular relief of Roman garrisons in Britain took place in about 381, and the Chronicle suggests that a power vacuum was left behind.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We do not know how far <span class=SpellE>Vortigern's</span> authority ran, but possibly as far south as Kent because this is where <span class=SpellE>Hengest</span> and <span class=SpellE>Horsa</span> are said to have landed in 449.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Remember, they had come at first to help the British king.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There are likely to have been British leaders in other parts of the country, and <span class=SpellE>Vortigern</span> may have enjoyed a kind of <span class=SpellE>overlordship</span> of the former Roman province.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>At first, the Anglo-Saxons were helpful against the <span class=SpellE>Picts</span>, but they soon turned against their British hosts, describing them as 'worthless' and the land as excellent.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Reinforcements were sent for from <span class=SpellE>Angeln</span>, north Germany, and <span class=SpellE>Vortigern</span> must have been overthrown in a battle at Aylesford, Kent, against the Anglo-Saxons because <span class=SpellE>Hengest</span> and <span class=SpellE>Aesc</span> succeeded to the kingdom.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We know that <span class=SpellE>Horsa</span> was killed, but there is no mention of the death of <span class=SpellE>Vortigern</span>, who may also have died at about the same time.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Two years later, the Britons abandoned Kent, after a battle at Crayford, where four thousand were killed, and they withdrew to London.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The story of the arrival of <span class=SpellE>Hengest</span> and <span class=SpellE>Horsa</span> in the Chronicle is thought to have been taken from Bede who gives us the traditional displacement of the German settlers around the England:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='mso-tab-count: 1'> </span>These newcomers were from the three most formidable races of Germany, the Saxons, Angles, and Jutes.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>From the Jutes are descended the people of Kent and the Isle of Wight and those of the province of the West Saxons opposite the Isle of Wight who are called Jutes to this day.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>From the Saxons - that is the country now known as the land of the Old Saxons - came the East, South, and West Saxons.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>And from the Angles - that is the country known as <span class=SpellE>Angulus</span>, which lies between the provinces of the Jutes and Saxons and is said to remain unpopulated to this day - are descended the East and Middle Saxons, the <span class=SpellE>Mercians</span>, all the Northumbrian stock (that is those people living north of the river Humber), and other English peoples.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Their first chieftains are said to have been the brothers <span class=SpellE>Hengest</span> and <span class=SpellE>Horsa</span>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The latter was subsequently killed in battle against the Britons, and was buried in East Kent, where the monument bearing his name still stands.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>They were the sons of <span class=SpellE>Wictgils</span>, whose father was <span class=SpellE>Witta</span>, whose father was <span class=SpellE>Wecta</span>, son of <span class=SpellE>Woden</span>, from whose stock sprang the royal house of many provinces.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Although Bede's disposition of the invaders has been attacked over the years, it has proved very durable.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>There are many stories from the fifth and sixth centuries which speak of persistent invasions of England.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Some tell how the invaders fell out and fought one another, and as late as the eighth century, Bede despairs that the kingdoms within England, particularly his own Northumbria, were never weaker than when family members fought one another.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A nation speaks one language and we learn from the Peterborough manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that the languages of Britain were English, British, Welsh, Scottish, <span class=SpellE>Pictish</span>, and Book Language. Book Language meant Latin.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Cornish or West Welsh may also have been a spoken language.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Since this list is taken from Bede, it seems likely that these languages were those commonly spoken in different areas of Britain in the first quarter of the eighth century, when he was writing.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Perhaps English had become the prevailing spoken language in the lands of the Anglo-Saxons by the end of the ninth century when the Chronicle was begun.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This theme continues in the next Episode with the 'naming' of England. Some of the symbols of nationhood that originated in our period and have been adapted into our modern age might be unexpected. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Copyright Robert Smith, Manorial Society of Great Britain</span></i><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:12;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:13;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:14;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;color:black;background:#FFFFCC'>The Manorial Society of Great Britain Ltd is a Company Limited by Guarantee<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;color:black;background:#FFFFCC'>Registered in England and Wales No: 3296984</span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language: EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:15;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:16;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes;height:12.0pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.0pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <![if !supportMisalignedColumns]> <tr height=0> <td width=115 style='border:none'></td> <td width=118 style='border:none'></td> <td width=229 style='border:none'></td> <td width=10 style='border:none'></td> <td width=258 style='border:none'></td> </tr> <![endif]> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof: yes'><span style='mso-tab-count:8'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing style='margin-left:234.0pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span></span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:9.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:9.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </div> </body> </html>