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v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFFFCC" background="ateotw_episode9_files/image002.jpg" lang=EN-GB link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval:36.0pt'> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <v:background id="_x0000_s1025" o:bwmode="white" fillcolor="#ffc"> <v:fill src="ateotw_episode9_files/image002.jpg" o:title="Parchment" type="tile"/> </v:background></xml><![endif]--> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style='margin-left:13.7pt;border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:none;mso-border-insidev: none'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;height:12.75pt'> <td width=274 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:205.35pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:-4.3pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-add-space: auto;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>&lt;&lt; <a href="ateotw_episode8.html">Go to Episode 8</a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> <td width=274 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:205.35pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle align=center style='margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:-4.15pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="ateotw.html">Return to 'At The Edge Of The World' Episode Index</a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> <td width=274 valign=top style='width:205.4pt;border:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpLast align=right style='margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:54.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto;text-align:right;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="ateotw_episode10.html">Go to Episode 10</a> &gt;&gt;<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;height:12.75pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraph align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom: .0001pt;mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center;text-indent:-18.0pt;line-height: normal;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'><img width=22 height=35 src="ateotw_episode9_files/image001.jpg" alt="*"><span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span></span></span></span><![endif]><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>At the edge of the world  Episode 9<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></span></b><span style='mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/> <v:formulas> <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn 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Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2;height:12.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:3;height:14.1pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=bottom style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:14.1pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'><a href="http://youtu.be/SHqWKVhl4K4"><span style='color:black;mso-themecolor: text1'>Watch this episode in our YouTube channel</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:4'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:5'> <td width=538 colspan=3 valign=top style='width:403.5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <iframe width=560 height=315 src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/SHqWKVhl4K4" frameborder=0 allowfullscreen> </iframe> </td> <td width=283 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:212.6pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: EN-GB'>440s: Invasion under way: <span class=SpellE>Hengest</span> and <span class=SpellE>Horsa</span> land in Kent<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'>Where did the invaders come from and why?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Traditionally, the first of them were two brothers, <span class=SpellE>Hengest</span> and <span class=SpellE>Horsa</span>, who arrived in <span class=SpellE>Sheppey</span>, Kent.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Some Britons fled to Wales, southern Scotland, the north-west, and the south-west.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Some even went to Brittany, giving that modern <span class=SpellE>departement</span> of western France its name.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Most Britons seem to have stayed and their top people started marrying into the top Anglo-Saxon people.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'>Written and presented by Robert Smith, Chairman of the Manorial Society of Great Britain - <span style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'><a href="index.html"><span style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'>www.msgb.co.uk</span></a></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language: EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:6;height:20.4pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:20.4pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:7;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:8;height:16.5pt'> <td width=134 valign=top style='width:100.3pt;border:none;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-right-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Credits:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Written and presented by<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Robert Smith<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Voice over<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Barney Powell<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Rebecca Cooper<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Music production &amp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Original music<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Simon Roberts<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>(Lyric media group)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Original film footage<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Picture editor<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Roberto <span class=SpellE>Ekholm</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Asst picture editor<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Guilfre</span></span><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> Jordan<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Associate Producer<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Producer<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Antonio <span class=SpellE>Parente</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td width=688 colspan=4 valign=top style='width:515.8pt;border:none; mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Picture sources:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Anglo-Saxon battles occur often in the chronicles, but skirmishes might have been more accurate: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://imgarcade.com/1/anglo-saxon-shield-wall/">http://imgarcade.com/1/anglo-saxon-shield-wall/</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Gildas</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>, British cleric living in mostly Christian Wales, bewailed the destruction wrought on Britannia by the invasions of Angles, Saxons, and Jutes:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span><a href="http://kingarthur.wikia.com/wiki/Gildas?file=Gildas.jpg">http://kingarthur.wikia.com/wiki/Gildas?file=Gildas.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>John Winthrop, an early governor of <span class=SpellE>Massachussetts</span>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Survival of the early English colonists in North America required defence against the indigenous American Indians who lived there, becoming in the 19th century 'manifest destiny' which, without naming the policy, effectively confirmed genocide.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Despite the groans of the literate, like <span class=SpellE>Gildas</span>, there does not seem to have been a Saxon policy of mass murder against indigenous Britons.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>An early West Saxon king, <span class=SpellE>Cerdic</span>, bore a British name, suggesting marriage at the highest level between the races: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Winthrop">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Winthrop</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Map Operation Sea Lion: Adolf Hitler's plan to invade Britain in early autumn, 1940, was defeated by Churchill's 'the Few' - RAF fighter pilots who denied the Germans superiority in the air.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>But this was hardly the first attempt to invade the islands at the edge of the world.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Napoleon Bonaparte had had it in mind in the early years of the 19th century, but was thwarted at the great sea battle of Trafalgar by the men of the Royal Navy, led by Admiral Horatio Nelson.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We know that our forebears, the Anglo-Saxons and others, succeeded; as did the Vikings from the ninth to the 11th centuries; as did the Normans in 1066.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Less well known is that the French, under the future Louis VIII, seized London in 1216-17; and William of Orange's Dutch invasion in 1688 was completely successful, William taking the throne from King James II in what is called the Glorious Revolution.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It was bloodless:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Sea_Lion">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Sea_Lion</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Busy streets near <span class=SpellE>Jama</span> <span class=SpellE>Masjid</span>, Old Delhi.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Britain ruled about 350 million Indians with some 100,000 British administrators and troops, and English is a widely spoken language in the subcontinent.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Little surprise then that, at first, a smallish number of Anglo-Saxons, who were well prepared and armed, caused havoc in Britannia, the province eventually becoming known as England after the Angle invaders:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Delhi">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Delhi</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Fall of the Berlin Wall: how rapidly empires crash.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>A Roman empire of a sort survived until 1453, but Rome itself had been lost a thousand years before.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Empires always crash, most recently the Soviet empire between 1989 and 1991:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brandenburg_Gate">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brandenburg_Gate</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Map Jutland and Saxony: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jutland_peninsula_2.png">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jutland_peninsula_2.png</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Saxon warriors: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://www.spanglefish.com/rulersofthesouthsaxons/">http://www.spanglefish.com/rulersofthesouthsaxons/</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Re-enactment: the Imperial Army:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Roman_army">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Roman_army</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Immutable view: <span class=SpellE>Teisenkopf</span> Mountain, Black Forest, Germany, by Andreas Frick: <a href="http://gfcelebration.com/tag/black-forest-torte/">http://gfcelebration.com/tag/black-forest-torte/</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>As above: Fall of the Berlin Wall, November 1989 <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Roman galley <span class=SpellE>assited</span> by sail - possibly not dissimilar to ships used in the North Sea by Counts of the Saxon Shore:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://uncyclopedia.wikia.com/wiki/File:Roman_SHip.jpg">http://uncyclopedia.wikia.com/wiki/File:Roman_SHip.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>As above: Saxon warriors <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>As above: John Winthrop <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>As above: Jutland and Saxony <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Mounted Warlord: re-enactment of an Arthurian war-game : <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://maximumrockroleplaying.blogspot.co.uk/2010/12/brytenwalda-wargaming-in-arthurian.html">http://maximumrockroleplaying.blogspot.co.uk/2010/12/brytenwalda-wargaming-in-arthurian.html</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The <span class=SpellE>Hugin</span> is a reconstructed Viking <span class=SpellE>longship</span> that is located at <span class=SpellE>Pegwell</span> Bay in Ramsgate, Kent, England.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It was a gift from the Danish Government:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugin_(longship)">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugin_(longship)</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Interior of Villa <span class=SpellE>Armira</span> with its complex ancient Roman floor mosaics:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villa_Armira">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villa_Armira</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Re-enactment of <span class=SpellE>Feodaries</span>: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://www.staffordshirehoard.org.uk/news/lady-of-the-mercians-to-be-honoured">http://www.staffordshirehoard.org.uk/news/lady-of-the-mercians-to-be-honoured</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span>Tapestry <span class=GramE>depicting<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>the</span> mythical King Arthur,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>here holding a flag with three crowns upon it.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Copyright, Maurice <span class=SpellE>Babey</span>, <span class=SpellE>Historisches</span> Museum, Basel, Switzerland Anglo Saxons at war:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://www.wherewhywhen.com/facts-about-heroin/">http://www.wherewhywhen.com/facts-about-heroin/</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Nothing changes: a representation of a burning village 1500 years ago in which non-belligerents were killed:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span><a href="http://prydain.wikia.com/wiki/File:Burning_village.jpg">http://prydain.wikia.com/wiki/File:Burning_village.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Hoxne</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> Hoard: like most such safety measures, the gold and silver were buried and either the owner did not survive to return and reclaim it; or forgot where exactly it was buried: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoxne_Hoard">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoxne_Hoard</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Staffordshire_hoard</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>, the most important Saxon discovery since Sutton <span class=SpellE>Hoo</span> in 1939. The Staffordshire hoard is a treasure trove discovered in 2009:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Staffordshire_hoard_annotated.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Staffordshire_hoard_annotated.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Using chronicle and archaeological evidence, a map of the distribution of the peoples of Britain circa 600 can be speculatively drawn: <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Britain_peoples_circa_600.png">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Britain_peoples_circa_600.png</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Harun</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>-Charlemagne:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span class=SpellE>Harun</span> al-Rashid, fifth caliph of the Abbasid dynasty, receiving a delegation sent by Charlemagne at his court in Baghdad, more than 2,000 miles from <span class=SpellE>from</span> the German court at Aachen.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This must have taken place towards the end of the eighth century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Abbasid empire stretched from Egypt to the plains of the Indus River, in modern Pakistan.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span class=SpellE>Harun</span> al-Rashid and his lavish court are best remembered in The Thousand and One Nights.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Painting by Julius <span class=SpellE>Kochert</span> (1827-1918), dated 1864, hangs in the <span class=SpellE>Maximilianeum</span> Foundation, Munich, Germany.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This image was created and provided by <span class=SpellE>Zereshk</span>: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Harun-Charlemagne.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Harun-Charlemagne.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Francisco I Madero Avenue, Mexico City, named after Francisco Madera, a leader of the Mexican Revolution, briefly President in 1910 when he was assassinated.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Equivalent of Oxford Street, London and Madison Avenue, New York: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_I._Madero_Avenue">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_I._Madero_Avenue</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Taj</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> <span class=SpellE>Mahal</span>, Agra, India.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Built by Shah <span class=SpellE>Jahan</span> (<span class=SpellE>Shahbuddin</span> Muhammad) (r 1627-54), a Muslim ruler, to commemorate his beloved wife <span class=SpellE>Mumtaz</span> <span class=SpellE>Mahal</span>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He ordered many other great buildings, including the Red Fort, in <span class=SpellE>Dehli</span>, which would become, ironically, the heart of the British Raj in the 19th century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>English remains one of the official languages of the subcontinent.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Despite long Anglo-Indian links - not least the use of Indian imperial troops in two world wars - Britain has lost out to China and America in trade, and British politicians, most recently David Cameron, British Prime Minister between 2010 and 2015, who treat Indians in a patronizing fashion.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Shah <span class=SpellE>Jehan's</span> reign was a Golden Age in Indian history: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Featured_picture_candidates/Taj_Mahal,_Agra">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Featured_picture_candidates/Taj_Mahal,_Agra</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Old Delhi - Busy streets near <span class=SpellE>Jama</span> <span class=SpellE>Masjid</span>, as above Map of Northumbria, an amalgamation of two separate and rival principalities: <span class=SpellE>Deira</span>, based on York, and Bernicia, based on <span class=SpellE>Bamburgh</span>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The two provinces were united in the 620s and 630s as Northumbria, reaching its apogee under King <span class=SpellE>Oswiu</span>, who died in 670: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Northumbria">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Northumbria</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Map The <span class=SpellE>Heptarchy</span>, according to Bartholomew's A literary &amp; Historical Atlas of Europe (1914).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The <span class=SpellE>Heptarchy</span> was seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms believed to have existed in England in the seventh and eighth centuries: Kent, Sussex, Wessex, Essex, East Anglia, Mercia, and Northumbria, deriving from the Greek '<span class=SpellE>hepta</span>', seven: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heptarchy">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heptarchy</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Dumnonia</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> is the Latinized name of the <span class=SpellE>Brythonic</span> kingdom in south-west England, said to have been a Celtic kingdom, different perhaps in race from the Britons.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The map is speculative, intending to show the several British tribal areas on the eve of the Roman conquest of the Emperor Claudius in AD43.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The <span class=SpellE>Iceni</span>, who seem to have occupied modern Norfolk, and were led in revolt by Queen Boudicca, or Boadicea, against Roman rule in the 60s: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dumnonia">http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dumnonia</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span><span class=SpellE>Gildas</span>: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gildas">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gildas</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Cdwalla</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> of Wessex - this depiction of the king, a detail from the Lambert Barnard mural, is to be found in the south transept of Chichester Cathedral, and was commissioned by Bishop Robert Sherburne between 1508 and 1536; the earlier date is perhaps to be preferred as, by 1536, the <span class=SpellE>Henrcian</span> dissolution of the monasteries was well under way: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%C3%A6dwalla_of_Wessex">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%C3%A6dwalla_of_Wessex</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Map The main political centres in early medieval Scotland <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotland_in_the_Early_Middle_Ages">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotland_in_the_Early_Middle_Ages</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Arch of the Roman Emperor <span class=SpellE>Septimius</span> Severus (r 193-211), a native who was born in <span class=SpellE>Lepcis</span> Magna, Tripolitania (modern <span class=SpellE>Lybia</span>).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He married as his second wife Julia <span class=SpellE>Domna</span>, a beautiful Syrian woman, who presided over a salon which included the famous doctor, Galen, whose writings on medicine would hold sway in Europe into the 16th century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>She also encouraged <span class=SpellE>Favius</span> <span class=SpellE>Philostratus</span> The Lives of <span class=GramE>the of</span> the Sophists (professional, often itinerant, teachers to the rich, who were condemned by Plato and sophistry today is seen as specious and irresponsible.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span class=SpellE>Lepcis</span> Magna was greatly beautified by <span class=SpellE>Septimus</span> and was one of the finest Roman remains around the Mediterranean.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We can only hope that the troubles in <span class=SpellE>Lybia</span> since 2011 have not damaged such a world heritage site:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arch_of_Septimius_Severus">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arch_of_Septimius_Severus</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Bust of <span class=SpellE>Septimius</span> Severus, <span class=SpellE>Musei</span> <span class=SpellE>Capitolini</span>, Rome, Italy: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Septimius_Severus">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Septimius_Severus</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Manifest destiny in action: An 1899 chromolithograph of U.S. cavalry pursuing American Indians; artist unknown, at the Werner Company, Akron, Ohio, USA (1923): <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cavalry_and_Indians.JPG">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cavalry_and_Indians.JPG</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Priests singing - from a manuscript at the Henry Charles Lea Library, University of Pennsylvania, USA: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://medievalfragments.wordpress.com/">http://medievalfragments.wordpress.com/</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Arch of Constantine: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arch_of_Constantine">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arch_of_Constantine</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>King Henry VIII, whose Reformation of the English Church severed a thousand-year link with Rome: <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VIII_of_England">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VIII_of_England</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Arch of Constantine :<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arch_of_Constantine">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arch_of_Constantine</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal;mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-bidi-font-weight: bold'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:9;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:16.5pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:10;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:11;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Episode transcript:<o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We might take the expression 'barbarian invasions' to mean some kind of blood and thunder influx.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There will be drama, but the invasion was hardly new when it started with <span class=SpellE>Hengest</span> and <span class=SpellE>Horsa</span> in Kent. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Angles and Saxons - Franks, Frisians, Jutes, and others - had been coming to the western provinces of the Roman Empire, and some must have settled and been <span class=SpellE>romanised</span>, from at least the first century AD.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Some came as imperial troops.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Many others must have come as traders, some of them settling, others returning, still others perhaps going back and forth.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Some may have come as refugees, seeing the Roman Empire as a more comfortable option to remaining in the dank, uncivilized forests of Germany.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This is how Roman writers saw that region just beyond imperial control - across the river Rhine.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>But with the fall of the Empire in the West, these incomers became more numerous, rather as some East Europeans have been arriving in the West since the fall of the most recent of the European empires - the Soviet Union - in 1989-91.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>By the middle of the fourth century, these races may have become more piratical, or appeared so to the imperial government in the new Roman capital of Constantinople.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>About that time, a Count of the Saxon Shore was appointed to serve in the distant province of Britannia, possibly with some kind of coastguard functions at sea and on his landward side.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>With the withdrawal of regular Roman forces, from about 381, Britain had to fend for itself - and over the next hundred years there was an influx from modern north Germany, and elsewhere.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It became an invasion, resulting sometimes in pitched battles between natives and incomers.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We can imagine this from comparable, observable influxes of foreigners into places in more recent times: Spanish and Portuguese into South and Central America from the 16th century, and English and other races from the 17th century into what were to become the United States and Canada. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>If you are of my generation, you were probably taught early on at school, that the Anglo-Saxons arrived in copious numbers, driving the native Britons northward into Scotland and Cumbria, and westward into Wales, Cornwall, and Devon.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The 'Anglo-Saxons' are thought to have been a <span class=SpellE>mish</span>-mash of people from Denmark and North Germany (known then as Saxony).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There were probably other adventurers from other parts of Germany, or even farther, who were led by Angle or Saxon warlords, whose language and manners their followers spoke and shared, or they adopted.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span class=SpellE>Hengest</span> and <span class=SpellE>Horsa</span> were two such leaders who gathered about themselves small bands of armed men, and led them on adventures into Britain.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Although their boats are called long ships, the capacity of these vessels was small.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>By the time you had got on board weapons, armour, water, provisions - even horses - there may have been room for ten fighting men, pirates or soldiers, as you like.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>If you were Franks, you just walked into the Roman province of Gaul from Germany, in very much larger numbers, we might safely assert, than Anglo-Saxons who were restricted by the capacity of their boats.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The sea - named the English moat in Shakespeare's Henry V - was still very much in use as late 1940-41, when Adolf Hitler abandoned Operation <span class=SpellE>Sealion</span> - the German invasion plan of Britain from the French Channel ports.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>According to the chronicler <span class=SpellE>Nennius</span>, probably a Welsh monk, <span class=SpellE>Hengest</span> and <span class=SpellE>Horsa</span> came with only three ships.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The number of expeditions grew as word got back that the land was rich and the people no match in warfare.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>They may have found a more or less peaceful, post Roman, partly Christianized people, where the Roman villa survived in places.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>What had not survived since the Romans was a central authority capable of gathering taxes and arranging defence.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>No doubt the wealthy bought their own security on the withdrawal of Roman troops and Roman protection of property.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>These protectors - called <span class=SpellE>feodaries</span> - may have been Britons who had fought for Rome in Europe, and who found a ready market for their skills when they returned home.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The legend of King Arthur may have arisen from one such mercenary.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The incomers were an organized war band.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>They would have established bridgeheads and deliberately caused local havoc to cow the indigenous population, as they looked for food and booty.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Where they might have faced stiff resistance, they probably took to their boats, as the Vikings were to do three centuries later, when the going got tough.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In a conquest - organization, determination, and fear of the indigenous population are everything.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>In the fifth century, some Britons - the wealthy ones - moved out of what was to become England.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Hordes of coin and household items have been unearthed by archaeologists, which suggest that Britons fled, burying the valuables they could not carry, but expecting to return to retrieve them in better times.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>But most must have stayed put, and just as the Britons four hundred years before had gradually adopted the language and social mores of their Roman conquerors, so they adopted the language and social mores of their latest conquerors - the Anglo-Saxons.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There are today, apparently, no ethnic differences among a great swath of the English people, or southern Scottish or Welsh, and it is likely that most of us are not pure Anglo-Saxons at all, but Britons with squirts of all sorts of other blood in our veins.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This must have long have been the case.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The new warlords spoke a different language, and the Britons adopted it because it made sense to be able to communicate with the new masters, as it had made sense to speak Latin under the Romans.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It would make sense in the seventh and eighth centuries, in the Near East, for the conquered peoples there to speak Arabic under their new Muslim rulers, the Caliphs.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Previously, they had spoken Greek and Aramaic, the former now confined to the country of Greece, the latter a dead language.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>More recent comparisons might be found in South America, where Spanish and Portuguese are today spoken as the main languages, which is reflected in the alternative name for this continent - Latin America.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Another example might be British India. There, three or four hundred million people were ruled in peacetime, at the height of the Raj, in the late 19th century, by about a hundred thousand British.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Hindi, Urdu, and other local languages thrive, but English is widely understood in India and Pakistan - not just among the elite - and English remains one of the legal languages of the subcontinent.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This is the more so in recent years because English is the language of business and commerce, thanks to the economic superiority of America.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In Britannia, the ruled adopted the language of the new rulers in what became known as Anglo-Saxon <span class=SpellE>England.As</span> we saw, the earliest recorded dispute between host and incomers, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, was the fall-out between <span class=SpellE>Vortigern</span>, and <span class=SpellE>Hengest</span> and <span class=SpellE>Horsa</span>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>At the time of his History in the early eighth century, St Bede, as quoted in <span class=SpellE>annal</span> 449 of the Chronicle, may well have got the identities of the invaders and their places of settlement about right. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Roman province of Britannia had been divided, by Bede's time, into shifting kingdoms or chieftainships, one of the first important of which was the kingdom of Bernicia, later to be absorbed and to become Northumbria, where Bede lived.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We noted earlier that Bede distinguished three groups of incomers in his History: Saxons, Angles, and Jutes, who came from Jutland, that spur of land that forms the Danish mainland today.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Saxons settled Wessex, Sussex, Essex, those places that end with -S.E.X.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Angles settled East Anglia, the Midlands (which was called Mercia), Yorkshire, and Northumbria; and the Jutes settled Kent and the south coast as far as Southampton Water and the Isle of Wight. <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span>Franks and <span class=SpellE>Gauls</span> (from France) had also formed some settlements in the south, and some Irish had settled in modern Merseyside, a settlement that was to become their own a thousand years later, as landless Irish flooded into England to provide much of the muscle for the Industrial Revolution.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>By mid-eighth century, England was divided into seven principal kingdoms, known as the <span class=SpellE>Heptarchy</span>. British kingdoms survived in <span class=SpellE>Dumnonia</span>, roughly Devon and Cornwall, and in Wales.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There had been British principalities in the west, particularly in Wales, since the early days of Roman rule.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>St <span class=SpellE>Gildas</span>, a Briton living in independent Wales in the sixth century, writes of an influx of Britons to Wales in his Ruin of Britain as Anglo-Saxons established themselves. But, like most chroniclers, he was writing for his privileged audience and may well have been biased.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Some Britons in the higher echelons of society, including St <span class=SpellE>Gildas</span>, certainly decamped to Brittany, hence that French province's name.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>But there is strong circumstantial evidence - from the king lists of early Anglo-Saxon tribal leaders - of their adopting British names: <span class=SpellE>Caedwalla</span>, 11th King of Wessex, being an illustration in the seventh century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Intermarriage at the highest levels of Anglo-British society implies intermarriage at all levels.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>There are reports in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of bloody battles of these German settlers with the British and Welsh, but there is nothing in the Chronicle from which one could infer that the English prosecuted a policy of ethnic cleansing - or of the British-Welsh being treated as a second class race by the incomers.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Domination is often borne of a sense of self-preservation.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Angles, Saxons, and Jutes intermarried with the Britons.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Scots from Ireland intermarried with indigenous <span class=SpellE>Picts</span>, and a royal marriage was to result in the kingdom of Scotland.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There must also have been intermarriage long before - under Roman rule.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Romans themselves must have intermarried, and there had been African and German emperors.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It has probably been well said of the Anglo-Saxons by Charles Mosley, in Blood Royal, that there was 'no apartheid ban on cross-racial mating for them.'<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Genocide does not appear to have been an Anglo-Saxon policy.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It certainly became one in the colonization of the United States, where, after Independence - in 1783 - those Americans of British descent were preponderant, and soon propounded the theology of 'Manifest Destiny' whereby the new country should spread from sea to shining sea - from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This enabled the new republic to justify the wholesale slaughter of the indigenous Americans, or their confinement to small reservations, which duly took place.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Back in Britain, at the end of the seventh century, like Bede, we may be able to start talking about the 'English', whose conversion to Catholic Christianity had begun a century before.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>As we have noticed, Christianity was not just important in the religious context, at a period when religion was all, it was politically important.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It was a binding agent, helping to smooth out the racial creases.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>And the inter-dependence of the Roman Church and the embryonic English states can be dated from this time - an inter-dependence that was to last until the reign of King Henry VIII nine hundred years later.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Another Episode is suddenly over.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Next time, we shall be looking at a Roman emperor who declared Christianity the State religion of his Empire, which included Britain. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Copyright Robert Smith, Manorial Society of Great Britain</span></i><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:12;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:13;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:14;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;color:black;background:#FFFFCC'>The Manorial Society of Great Britain Ltd is a Company Limited by Guarantee<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;color:black;background:#FFFFCC'>Registered in England and Wales No: 3296984</span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language: EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:15;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:16;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes;height:12.0pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.0pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <![if !supportMisalignedColumns]> <tr height=0> <td width=120 style='border:none'></td> <td width=117 style='border:none'></td> <td width=228 style='border:none'></td> <td width=10 style='border:none'></td> <td width=255 style='border:none'></td> </tr> <![endif]> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof: yes'><span style='mso-tab-count:8'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing style='margin-left:234.0pt'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span></span></b><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:9.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:9.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </div> </body> </html>