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mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} </style> <![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapedefaults v:ext="edit" spidmax="8194"> <o:colormru v:ext="edit" colors="#fdf5d9"/> </o:shapedefaults></xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"> <o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"/> </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFFFCC" background="ateotw_pilot_files/image002.jpg" lang=EN-GB link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval:36.0pt'> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <v:background id="_x0000_s1025" o:bwmode="white" fillcolor="#ffc"> <v:fill src="ateotw_pilot_files/image002.jpg" o:title="Parchment" type="tile"/> </v:background></xml><![endif]--> <div class=WordSection1> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p> <div align=center> <table class=MsoTableGrid border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 style='margin-left:13.7pt;border-collapse:collapse;border:none;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;mso-border-insideh:none;mso-border-insidev: none'> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;height:12.75pt'> <td width=274 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:205.35pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst style='margin-top:0cm;margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:-4.3pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-add-space: auto;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>&lt;&lt; <a href="ateotw_trailer.html">Go to Trailer</a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> <td width=274 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:205.35pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle align=center style='margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:-4.15pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="ateotw.html">Return to 'At The Edge Of The World' Episode Index</a><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> <td width=274 valign=top style='width:205.4pt;border:none;border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraphCxSpLast align=right style='margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm;margin-bottom:0cm;margin-left:54.0pt;margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-add-space:auto;text-align:right;line-height:normal'><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><a href="ateotw_episode1.html">Go to Episode 1</a> &gt;&gt;<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;height:12.75pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:12.75pt'> <p class=MsoListParagraph align=center style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom: .0001pt;mso-add-space:auto;text-align:center;text-indent:-18.0pt;line-height: normal;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><![if !supportLists]><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol; mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol'><span style='mso-list:Ignore'><img width=22 height=35 src="ateotw_pilot_files/image001.jpg" alt="*"><span style='font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span></span></span></span><![endif]><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>At the edge of the world  Pilot Episode<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></span></b><span style='mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75" coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe" filled="f" stroked="f"> <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/> <v:formulas> <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"/> <v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"/> <v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"/> <v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"/> <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"/> <v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"/> </v:formulas> <v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"/> <o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"/> </v:shapetype><v:shape id="Picture_x0020_6" o:spid="_x0000_i1025" type="#_x0000_t75" alt="image010.jpg" style='width:16.5pt;height:26.25pt;visibility:visible; mso-wrap-style:square'> <v:imagedata src="ateotw_pilot_files/image003.jpg" o:title="image010"/> </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img border=0 width=22 height=35 src="ateotw_pilot_files/image005.jpg" alt=image010.jpg v:shapes="Picture_x0020_6"><![endif]></span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:28.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2;height:12.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;line-height:115%;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:3;height:14.1pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=bottom style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:14.1pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'><a href="http://youtu.be/8C2HAQdy-K8"><span style='color:black;mso-themecolor: text1'>Watch this episode in our YouTube channel</span></a><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:4'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:5'> <td width=538 colspan=3 valign=top style='width:403.5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <iframe width=560 height=315 src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/8C2HAQdy-K8" frameborder=0 allowfullscreen> </iframe> </td> <td width=283 colspan=2 valign=top style='width:212.6pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'>At the Edge of the World is a history of the peoples of the British Isles from the Fall of the Roman Empire in the West (AD410) to the death of King William the Conqueror (1087). <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'>This is an introductory episode to give an idea of the topics that will later be discussed in depth. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span lang=EN-US style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB'>Written and presented by Robert Smith, Chairman of the Manorial Society of Great Britain - <span style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'><a href="index.html"><span style='color:black;mso-themecolor:text1'>www.msgb.co.uk</span></a></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language: EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:6;height:20.4pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:20.4pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:7;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:8;height:16.5pt'> <td width=134 valign=top style='width:100.3pt;border:none;border-right:solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-right-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Credits:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Written and presented by<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Robert Smith<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Voice over<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Barney Powell<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Music production &amp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Original music<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Simon Roberts<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>(Lyric media group)<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Original film footage<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Picture editor<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Roberto <span class=SpellE>Ekholm</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Asst picture editor<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Guilfre</span></span><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> Jordan<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Producer<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> <td width=688 colspan=4 valign=top style='width:515.8pt;border:none; mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Picture sources:<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>William the Conqueror - Source: <a href="http://globallearning.pwnet.org/images/WilliamtheConqueror.jpg">http://globallearning.pwnet.org/images/WilliamtheConqueror.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Death of King Harold II at the Battle of Hastings, 1066. Detail of the Bayeux Tapestry  11th century; by special permission of the City of Bayeux<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Angles, Saxon, Jutes invasion map - Source:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><a href="http://www.thecimmerian.com/cormac-wulfhere-and-very-early-vikings/">http://www.thecimmerian.com/cormac-wulfhere-and-very-early-vikings/</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>King Arthur presides at the Round Table with all of his Knights.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Medieval leper bell. Photo taken<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>at the museum <span class=SpellE>Ribes</span> <span class=SpellE>Vikinger</span>, <span class=SpellE>Ribe</span>, Denmark, May 2005 <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Source: <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Leprosy_bell.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Leprosy_bell.jpg</a> Author: Wikipedia user <span class=SpellE>Cnyborg</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>St. <span class=SpellE>Ethelburga</span> of <span class=SpellE>Lyming</span>, Abbess of <span class=SpellE>Lyming</span>. All Rights Reserved by Nash Ford Publishing - Source: <a href="http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/adversaries/bios/ethelburgalyming.html">http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/adversaries/bios/ethelburgalyming.html</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Free Shoulder clasp (closed) from the Sutton <span class=SpellE>Hoo</span> ship-burial 1, England. British Museum. Wiki: Rob Roy. 27 January 2007<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>An image of a king and his witan - from the eleventh-century Old English <span class=SpellE>Hexateuch</span> [British Library] Source: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Witan_hexateuch.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Witan_hexateuch.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>After <span class=SpellE>en<span class=GramE>:Carlo</span></span> <span class=SpellE>Saraceni</span>, or his studio, imaginary portrait of <span class=SpellE>en:Pope</span> Gregory I, ca 1610. Cropped. (Galleria <span class=SpellE>Nazionale</span> <span class=SpellE>d'Arte</span> <span class=SpellE>Antica</span>, Rome) Galleria <span class=SpellE>Nazionale</span> <span class=SpellE>d'Arte</span> <span class=SpellE>Antica</span>, Rome wiki<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>William the Conqueror - Source: British School, 1618-1620 Description: William the Conqueror. Painting. Oil oak panel. 57.2 x 42.5 cm. Current location: Dulwich Picture Gallery. Image location: Wikipedia Commons<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Battle of Hastings, as portrayed by Philip James de <span class=SpellE>Loutherbourg</span>: this work of art has been engraved by W. Bromley and published in Bowyer's edition of Hume's History of England (1804). Image location: Wikipedia Commons<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Harold <span class=SpellE>Godwinson</span> falls at Hastings. Harold was struck in the eye with an arrow (left), slain by a mounted Norman knight (right) or both. 1070s. Bayeux Tapestry. Source: Unknown, suspected to be commissioned by Matilda of Flanders, <span class=SpellE>Odo</span> of Bayeux or Edith of Wessex. Image location: Wikipedia Commons<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>King Arthur - Source: N. C. Wyeth. Title page of The Boy's King Arthur: Sir Thomas Malory's History of King Arthur and His Knights of the Round Table, Edited for Boys by Sidney Lanier (New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1922).<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Vercingetorix</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> <span class=SpellE>jette</span> <span class=SpellE>ses</span> <span class=SpellE>armes</span> aux <span class=SpellE>pieds</span> de Jules Csar, 1899. Artist: Lionel Royer (1852 - 1926) <span class=SpellE>Muse</span> CROZATIER du <span class=SpellE>Puy</span>-en-<span class=SpellE>Velay</span>. <a href="http://www.mairie-le-puy-en-velay.fr">http://www.mairie-le-puy-en-velay.fr</a><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Image location: Wikipedia Commons<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Painting of Edward the Elder, Anon. 13th cent. Image location: Wikipedia Commons<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>St Hilda icon. Image source: <a href="http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Hilda.htm">http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Hilda.htm</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Lapis lazuli with pyrite. Afghanistan. Source - <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lapis-lazuli_hg.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lapis-lazuli_hg.jpg</a> Author <span class=SpellE>Hannes</span> <span class=SpellE>Grobe</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Last Judgment, circ.1435. Artist: Stefan <span class=SpellE>Lochner</span> (1400-1451). Source: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Stefan_Lochner_006.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Stefan_Lochner_006.jpg</a> <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Engraving (intaglio and engraving) of St. Augustine background scriptorium. Source - <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Augustinus_2.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Augustinus_2.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Sculpture of King <span class=SpellE>thelberht</span> of Kent, an Anglo-Saxon king and saint, on Canterbury Cathedral in England.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Roman soldiers 70 <span class=SpellE>a.C</span>. with <span class=SpellE>centurio</span>, <span class=SpellE>aquilifer</span>, <span class=SpellE>signifer</span>, <span class=SpellE>cornicen</span>. Photo taken during a show of <span class=SpellE>Legio</span> XV from Pram, Austria. Source - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Roman_soldiers_with_aquilifer_signifer_centurio_70_aC.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Roman_soldiers_with_aquilifer_signifer_centurio_70_aC.jpg</a> Author: Wikipedia user <span class=SpellE>MatthiasKabel</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Reenactment</span></span><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> of XXX <span class=SpellE>Ulpia</span> <span class=SpellE>Victrix</span> legion by LEGIO XXX ULPIA TRAIANA VICTRIX ONLUS, Rome, 2007 Source - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Legione_romana_parata.JPG">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Legione_romana_parata.JPG</a> Author: Marten253<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Passion scenes from the St Augustine Gospels, possibly brought by Mellitus to England. Folio 125r of the St. Augustine Gospels (Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 286), Scenes from the Passion.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>NOTE: This appears to have been digitally colour-adjusted. The colours do not represent the original, <span class=SpellE>Amandajm</span>. 6th century AD. Folio 125r of the St. Augustine Gospels<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Saint Patrick stained glass window from Cathedral of Christ the Light, Oakland, CA. Photographer: Simon <span class=SpellE>Carrasco.wiki</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>St Columba window, St Margaret's Chapel, Edinburgh Castle. Source - <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:St-columba.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:St-columba.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Pagan Temple in <span class=SpellE>Garni</span>, Armenia (19 May 2007) Author: MEDIACRAT, project  Wow! Armenia (http://www.wowarmenia.ru) Source - <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Garni_Pagan_Temple.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Garni_Pagan_Temple.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Stained glass window from the cloister of Worcester Cathedral showing the death of <span class=SpellE>Penda</span> of Mercia. Author: Wikipedia user <span class=SpellE>Violetriga</span> (photographer) <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Source - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Penda_of_Mercia.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Penda_of_Mercia.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Book of <span class=SpellE>Lindisfarne</span>. Carpet page Source - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Meister_des_Book_of_Lindisfarne_002.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Meister_des_Book_of_Lindisfarne_002.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Depiction of the Venerable Bede (<span class=SpellE>CLVIIIv</span>) from the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493. Source - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nuremberg_Chronicle_Venerable_Bede.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nuremberg_Chronicle_Venerable_Bede.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>St. Boniface Baptising and Martyrdom in 754. Source: Illustration from the <span class=SpellE>Sacramentary</span> of Fulda. Date: 11th century. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Source - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:St_Boniface_-_Baptising-Martyrdom_-_Sacramentary_of_Fulda_-_11Century.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:St_Boniface_-_Baptising-Martyrdom_-_Sacramentary_of_Fulda_-_11Century.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Charles Martel in the Battle of Tours, painting by Charles de Steuben c.1837 Source - <a href="http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Steuben_-_Bataille_de_Poitiers.png">http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Steuben_-_Bataille_de_Poitiers.png</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Charlemagne receives the submission of <span class=SpellE>Widukind</span> at Paderborn. Author: <span class=SpellE>Ary</span> <span class=SpellE>Scheffer</span> (1840). Location: <span class=SpellE>Palais</span> de Versailles, <span class=SpellE>Gallerie</span> des <span class=SpellE>Batailles</span>. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Source - <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ary_Scheffer,_Charlemagne_re%C3%A7oit_la_soumission_de_Widukind_%C3%A0_Paderborn,_%281840%29.jpg?uselang=ca">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ary_Scheffer,_Charlemagne_re%C3%A7oit_la_soumission_de_Widukind_%C3%A0_Paderborn,_%281840%29.jpg?uselang=ca</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Offa's Dyke - the best bit. Author: Chris Heaton. Source - <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Offa%27s_Dyke_near_Clun.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Offa%27s_Dyke_near_Clun.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Map showing the principal routes of Viking invasion of England and Europe. Note in particular the arrow that shows a primary invasion route past the Isle of Man and directly into Lancashire. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Source - <a href="http://www.grimshaworigin.org/images/England/VikingMap.jpg">http://www.grimshaworigin.org/images/England/VikingMap.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A page from the [C] text of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. This entry is for 871, a year of battles between Wessex and the Vikings. British Library Cotton Tiberius B <span class=SpellE>i</span>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>One monk writing. Oil on wood, 21x16cm Author: Carl <span class=SpellE>Schleicher</span> Source - <a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carl_Schleicher_Schreibender_M%C3%B6nch.jpg">http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carl_Schleicher_Schreibender_M%C3%B6nch.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>King Alfred. Source - <a href="http://users.moscow.com/khakimian/images/alfred.jpg">http://users.moscow.com/khakimian/images/alfred.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Statue of King Alfred in <span class=SpellE>Wantage</span>, England. Photographer: Steve Daniels<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Ethelred the Unready, circa 968-1016. Illuminated manuscript, The Chronicle of <span class=SpellE>Abindon</span>, c.1220. MS <span class=SpellE>Cott</span>. Claude B.VI folio 87, verso, The British Library. <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Source - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:EthelUn.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:EthelUn.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>King Cnut - Source: Canute, c.995-1035. Illuminated manuscript, <span class=SpellE>Liber</span> Vitae, 1031, Stowe Ms 944, folio 6, The British Library. Scanned from the book The National Portrait Gallery History of the Kings and Queens of England by David Williamson, ISBN 1855142287. Image location: Wikipedia Commons<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Edward the Confessor, King of England 1042-1066, Bayeux Tapestry<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Deutsch: Edward <span class=SpellE>der</span> <span class=SpellE>Bekenner</span>, <span class=SpellE>Knig</span> von England 1042-1066, <span class=SpellE>Teppich</span> von Bayeux, 1066, <span class=SpellE>Stdtisches</span> Museum in Bayeux Source - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Edward_der_Bekenner.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Edward_der_Bekenner.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The funeral cortege of Edward the Confessor, from the Bayeux Tapestry, Tapestry dates from sometime earlier than 1476.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>From: Lucien Musset The Bayeux Tapestry, translated by Richard Rex, published by the <span class=SpellE>Boydell</span> Press, Woodbridge, UK. 2005. ISBN 1-84383-163-5. pp. 160-165 <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Source - <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bayeux_Edward_Funeral.jpg">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bayeux_Edward_Funeral.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>William the Conqueror. Source - <a href="http://globallearning.pwnet.org/images/WilliamtheConqueror.jpg">http://globallearning.pwnet.org/images/WilliamtheConqueror.jpg</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>All other pictures/photography  Ian Phillips<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:8.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:9;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:16.5pt'></td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:10;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:11;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Episode transcript:<o:p></o:p></span></i></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Coming soon on this site and on You Tube is the history documentary  At the Edge of the World - the story of the British Isles from the Fall of the Roman Empire in AD410 to the death of William the Conqueror in 1087 - a span of 677 years. It s called  At the Edge of the World because Ireland was as far west as you could go until Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas in 1492.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>This is the story of the settled tribes and invaders who now make up the nations of the island landmass, just off the continent of Europe, whose peoples would eventually found the United States and preside over the largest empire the world has yet encountered - an empire upon which the sun never set.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>It is written and presented by the Chairman of the Manorial Society of Great Britain, Robert Smith. It is a narrative of the men and women who laid the building blocks of the countries known as England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. It will tell how these nations were converted to Christianity, creating the most powerful cultural interconnection with mainland Europe. In this mostly secular or agnostic 21st century, Europe is not <span class=SpellE>unike</span> deeply-veined marble: you just cannot escape the variegated streaks of the Christian cultural tradition.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The <span class=SpellE>christianizing</span> of the islands at the edge of the world would bind them with the even wider and civilized culture of East Rome (based on Istanbul, or Constantinople) and the vast Muslim empires that conquered even Spain and the southern French littoral.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>This is the period known as the Dark Ages of Britons, Scots, Anglo-Saxons, Jutes, Vikings, and finally the Normans. When the Normans were conquering England in the 1060s, another branch of the Normandy leaders were conquering Sicily and Southern Italy. In fact, the Norman rulers in northern France started out from Scandinavia, and were Vikings, who also conquered east, through modern European Russia to the Black Sea.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Original music has been composed to accompany the documentary. Thousands of pictures of people and places have been obtained, and film footage shot around the British Isles to illustrate and enhance the narrative.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Weekly episodes of about 18 minutes each will build up into a story of more than 30 hours over two years. Watch this site for further information on the starting date.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>William the Conqueror summoned all the great men of England to meet him at Salisbury, in August 1086, to swear loyalty to him in return for the lands he had given them.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>These lands were recorded in the King's Book, known as <span class=SpellE>Domesday</span> book.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Twenty years before, William - as duke of Normandy - had invaded England, and killed its king, called Harold, and many of his men at the Battle of Hastings.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Harold was shot in the eye by an arrow and was buried at Waltham Abbey, Essex.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>That battle was fought in October.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Two months later, William was crowned king of England in London.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He had overthrown the richest monarchy in Western Europe and brought the fiercely independent southern part of island at the Edge of the World under foreign rule for the first time since the Romans 750 years before.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>King Harold was a seasoned military leader.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>A few weeks before, he had crushed a Danish invasion of Yorkshire, supported by some of the greatest Saxon lords in the North.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He had a powerful fleet that he used with success against the Danes, and killed their king.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Why did Harold not use that fleet to intercept the Norman ships crammed with 7,000 men, horses, and equipment?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Before that, in the last years of King Edward the Confessor's reign, he had fought his way into South Wales.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He was a military leader with an experienced army of thousands of heavily armed men.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>How had the disaster at Hastings happened?<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>But long before all this, who were the Anglo-Saxons who had invaded and started to settle England half a millennium before the conquering William?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>They had conquered the warlike <span class=SpellE>Keltic</span> Britons and their druids.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>King Arthur is said to have given them a run for their money.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Who were the druids?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Who was King Arthur?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Julius Caesar had first come to Britain in 55BC.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>What had happened to the Romans who had ruled England as the province of Britannia from Hadrian's Wall in the North to the Land's End in the South?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The greatest threat to well being and life was shortage of food, closely followed by a near complete ignorance of medicine, not battle, not the depredations of warlords.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>How long did people live when a small household cut, while preparing food, could prove fatal? <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span>What kind of medicine was there?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>And don't forget that the fine line between precarious life and death from starvation or pestilence for the vast majority of people persisted in Britain until at least the 17th century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>What did people wear and what did they eat?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>What were their houses like?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Why was British wine prized in Rome in the 2nd century AD, and did you know that there were 24 vineyards in <span class=SpellE>Domesday</span> Book in 1986?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Why did English wine disappear?<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The upper classes and clergy were internationally mobile.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>King Alfred's sister ruled Mercia for her brother and then after his death for her brother, King Edward the Elder.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Many women ruled abbeys and monasteries.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Why had women stopped, or been stopped, from playing leading roles in Church and State by the 11th century?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Anglo-Saxon period is known as the Dark Ages.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>But international trade, even with the Islands at the Edge of the World, burgeoned.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Lapis lazuli came from Afghanistan and was used in manuscripts, like the <span class=SpellE>Catach</span> Psalter in Ireland, and the <span class=SpellE>Lindisfarne</span> Gospels in England, to make blue tints.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Expensive furs came from Russia.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Gold ornaments from the Near East were found in a burial hoard at Sutton <span class=SpellE>Hoo</span>, Suffolk.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Garnets from Sri Lanka were used in some of the most beautiful Anglo-Saxon jewellery.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>English wool went all over western Europe.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>But there were no maps, remotely like the ones we use, so how did kings know where places were in their kingdoms, or in other kingdoms?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We shall find out.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>And with commerce and travel came knowledge of other peoples and places, their culture, their learning, their hopes, their fears.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The southern part of Britain may even have traded with the <span class=SpellE>Phoenecians</span> in the ninth century BC.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Were the islands at the Edge of the World still afforested and, if so, why did the Normans plant forests, best known being the New Forest in south-west Hampshire?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Did you know that there were no rabbits in England until the Normans or that saffron was grown in East Anglia commercially?<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Were the Anglo-Saxon <span class=SpellE>witans</span> - described as national meetings - precursors of parliamentary democracy, an idea that has recently gathered a head of political steam?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Men in the British Isles seemed to love a scrap in our period.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Is this why they go on scrapping right up to today, whether in Iraq for Queen and Country, or on Saturday nights in drunken brawls in some town centres?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Does anything fundamentally change?<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Every human endeavour was bound up in our ancestors' time in the all-pervasive supernatural, in God and Christianity, and the End of Days that everyone thought was imminent, when Christ would come to judge the quick and the dead.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Is the hold of the Church, a thousand years ago, being replicated and enforced today by politicians and scientists, some as shrill and dismissive of other options as Professor Richard Dawkins?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Does science have its own <span class=SpellE>martyrology</span> and its own high priests, just like the religious of years gone by?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Scientists who have dissented from the conception of Global Warming accuse the mainstream of denying them publication and jobs, paid for by corporate and tax-payer money.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Is this the modern equivalent of being burnt at the stake?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Science, like the Church, is also a business.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We can answer one of our earlier questions now.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In AD410, the last of the legions were recalled from Britannia to defend Rome, which fell soon after to barbarians under Alaric, King of the Goths.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A few years later, the first barbarians from north Germany - the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes - traditionally under their warlords, the brothers <span class=SpellE>Hengest</span> and <span class=SpellE>Horsa</span>, landed in Kent, to begin the Anglo-Saxon conquest of England.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>They were pagans.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>England was a lush land compared with the invaders' German home.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>They may also have reasoned that the fine Roman villas were treasure troves of wealth.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>These adventurers frightened off some Britons - mostly the better off - who fled to Wales, the West Country, even to Brittany, western France, which is named after them.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Some fled to the Scottish lowlands.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Most stayed put and married into the Anglo-Saxons to begin the mix of peoples who are now the English.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>At about the same time, from an area, known as Scotia, in Northern Ireland, the Irish <span class=SpellE>Kelts</span>, known as Scots, were invading Scotland, whose ancient people were the <span class=SpellE>Picts</span>, a warlike race who kept even the Romans out of their territory.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>A Roman emperor Hadrian had to build a wall to stop the <span class=SpellE>Picts</span> from invading their colony of Britannia to the south, the colony that would one day become England.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>No island is an island, except geographically, when, at its nearest point, it is only 22 miles from France.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Trade - and with it the exchange of culture and ideas - was of long standing between Britain and what <span class=GramE>was then Gaul</span>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>By the time the Anglo-Saxons and Scots were invading the island of Britain, the Franks were invading France from Germany.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A hundred years before the fall of Rome in AD410, the Roman Empire became a Christian empire, and, by some very astute footwork, the Christian Church of Rome not only survived Alaric's Goths, but began to prosper.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>So that, by AD597, the Roman Pope, Gregory the Great, could send a mission to Christianize Anglia, as England was then known.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Gregory had apparently seen young Angel or Angle slaves from England for sale in a Roman market and wept at this sight.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Since it was illegal to keep slaves who were Christian in Christendom, the Pope sent Augustine with about 40 other priests to England to convert the English pagans to Christianity.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>They landed in Kent and were received by <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span>, king of Kent, who was married to a Frankish Christian princess.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The king was converted.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>What we shall keep in the forefront of our minds in this history is the overwhelming importance of religion, pagan at first then Christian.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Everyone believed in God or gods, even truly wicked people, many of whom we shall meet along our way.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Roman Church had much, besides Christian belief, to impart to warlord kings, like <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span>.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Roman priests were educated - they could read and write.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Roman Empire had been built on conquest, but it was governed by written laws and imperial orders.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Church of Rome and its popes were the successors of Roman emperors and traditions.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>It was Augustine's priests at Canterbury who first rendered the Anglo-Saxon language - early English - into writing, using the Latin alphabet of ABC.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Barbarian kings could now write down their laws, and the first law code in Early English was written at this time, the first building block of the English nation state, of any nation state.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The Barbarian kings had their genealogies, deriving from their <span class=GramE>gods, that</span> were very important to them.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Divine descent in a profoundly religious age gave legitimacy, and, by taking up Christianity, these warlords could plug into a line of popes from St Peter all the way back to the Garden of Eden, just after the Creation.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>The right to rule didn't get any better than that.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>And the Roman Church was utterly practical.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It worked with the men, like <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span>, who were the power on the ground.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>A century before St Augustine of Canterbury, Patrick, a Briton from Wales, went to Ireland and laid the foundations of Christian culture so securely that Irish priests established a monastery on the island of Iona, Scotland, in the next century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>While Augustine and his immediate successors were converting the South, the Irish priests from Iona, led by St Columba, were converting the <span class=SpellE>Picts</span> and Scots in <span class=GramE>Scotland,</span> and the Angles in the embryonic kingdom of Northumbria that stretched from York to Edinburgh along the British North Sea coast.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>But Christianity was not an instantly done deal.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Kentish king after <span class=SpellE>Aethelberht</span> reverted to paganism.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>An East <span class=SpellE>Anglian</span> king had Christian and pagan altars side by side and worshipped at both.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The fabulous grave goods of one Angle king - found at Sutton <span class=SpellE>Hoo</span> - included gold and silver objects, decorated with Christian and pagan motifs.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Worst of all, from the Christian point of view, was <span class=SpellE>Penda</span> the Pagan, whose war bands controlled central England.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In alliance with the Welsh-British king of North Wales, he overthrew the saintly King Oswald of Northumbria, and slaughtered him and his entire army in 642.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>King <span class=SpellE>Penda</span> was killed in 655.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>King <span class=SpellE>Caedwalla</span> of Wessex invaded Hampshire and the Isle of Wight a bit later and wiped out its entire pagan royal family.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>But he spared two young princes long enough for them to be converted to Christianity before having them beheaded.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He went to Rome in 688 where he was baptized by Pope <span class=SpellE>Sergius</span> I.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Penda's</span></span><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> heir, in 655, was a Christian, and Northumbria recovered its equilibrium after the death of Oswald, its king and saint, to hold a synod at Whitby Abbey, north Yorkshire, founded by a woman called Hilda.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>This council, in 664, pronounced in favour of Roman Christianity, at the behest of <span class=SpellE>Oswy</span>, king of Northumbria.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Top royal followers were on-message even in the 7th century.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>What is known as the Northumbrian cultural re-birth in the early 8th century produced the <span class=SpellE>Lindisfarne</span> Gospels, commissioned by the monastery on Holy Island.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It also produced The History of the English, by St Bede, the father of modern history.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>One of <span class=SpellE>Lindisfarne's</span> early bishops was St Cuthbert, who gave his name to Durham Cathedral.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>And not far from <span class=SpellE>Lindisfarne</span> was <span class=SpellE>Bamburgh</span> Castle, one of the fortresses of the Northumbrian kings.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>So successful were the English and Irish conversions in the 7th century, that priests from both countries, and Iona, evangelized the modern Netherlands and Germany in the 8th century.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Indeed, the patron saint of the modern Netherlands is an Englishman, born in Devon.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He is St Boniface.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Women played a notable part in consolidating Christianity in the islands at the Edge of the World and also travelled to Germany, France, and Italy.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>But it might have been different.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>More than a century earlier, Arabs from modern Saudi Arabia charged out of their tribal lands and conquered as far east as Persia, and west from Egypt, through the whole of north Africa, as far as Spain. <span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>They invaded France more than once<span class=GramE>,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>and</span> controlled the French south coast from modern Marseilles west to Spain, which they ruled.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Had it not been for the Frankish commander Charles Martel, who defeated them at Poitiers, western France, in 731, we might all be Muslims and be speaking Arabic.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Just imagine if Christopher Columbus, who discovered America in 1492, had been a Muslim and not a Christian.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Charles Martel's grandson was Charles the Great - Charlemagne - who was crowned emperor of the West by Pope Leo III in Rome, on Christmas Day 800.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>One of his chief ministers was Alcuin, a priest from York.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>In England, by about 750, there were only three kingdoms left in England: Wessex, in the south-west; Mercia, in the Midlands; and Northumbria, in the north-east.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Wales stayed independent of England, but its princes were routinely at war with English rulers, one trying to invade the other, which caused a great king of Mercia to build a dyke to keep the Welsh Britons out.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'></span>It was called Offa's Dyke and was, for centuries to come, the largest single man-made structure in Western Europe.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Then, in the very late 8th century, the first Vikings descended on England, murdering, pillaging, and taking away English men, women, and children as slaves, whom they sold as far away as modern Russia and Turkey.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>These pagans returned in ever greater numbers in their <span class=SpellE>longships</span> from the 850s, overthrowing Northumbria and putting enormous pressure on Mercia.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>They might have taken Wessex but for the determination and persistence of one of the English's most important kings, Alfred the Great, but the Vikings took and settled most of the north and east of the country with York as their capital.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>King Alfred held the invaders in check, made peace with them, and converted them to Christianity.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He reformed the ramshackle English Church during this crisis, learnt to read and write, was pious, encouraged learning among his chief men, and ordered the beginning of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a most important series of histories by date about the country and its neighbours.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Uniquely, it was written in English.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>King Alfred also wrote the laws in English and his land grants in English, and the Bible was read in church in English.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The Normans put a stop to that.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Like just about all the chronicles in Europe, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was compiled by monks - the literate community with time to write.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>But we have to be careful with what they tell us because they were not unbiased, even the great Bede.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>They promoted Roman Christianity in their histories.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In their biographies, they promoted their subjects, like King Alfred and William the Conqueror, sometimes gushingly so.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Unwanted characters and events were air-brushed out, like a Nazi panegyric to Hitler, or a Soviet one to Stalin.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>We shall hear them speaking to us through quotations, in their own words - in English, not Latin - from as long ago as 1,300 years.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Alfred established a series of defensive fortresses along the border with the Viking <span class=SpellE>Danelaw</span>, and in depth.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>England had already been measured, so the king had a good idea of what his subjects could pay for their own defence, and a land tax (known as geld) was laid on them, and collected by efficient administrators.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He built a powerful navy so that he could meet the Vikings at sea, before they landed, or if they had landed, he could come up behind them.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>He revised and consolidated the Anglo-Saxon laws, and introduced his own penal code to meet the critical circumstances of invasion,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Perhaps <span class=GramE>surprisingly,</span> the death penalty was a last resort.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He followed the English tradition of fines, or <span class=SpellE>wirgilds</span>, on a rising scale, depending on the importance of the victim.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>When he died in 899, aged about 49, he left a race of highly competent sons and grandsons, who <span class=SpellE>reconquered</span> all of England, and brought the Vikings under their sceptre.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>They and their children married into all the chief royal families of Europe, and there is not one royal, princely, or ex-royal house today that is not descended from the Saxon monarchy.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Ironically, the kingdom of all the English was made possible by the terrible Viking attacks from Scandinavia.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>But the invasions were not over and almost 100 years later, under the feeble rule of King Alfred's great grandson, <span class=SpellE>Aethelred</span> the Unready, the Danes arrived in force again and overthrew him.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The kingdom was taken by Cnut, in 1015, who was the first ruler to style himself king of England, as opposed to  of the English'.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He is best known as the monarch who is said to have had his throne taken onto a beach where he commanded the tide to recede.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span class=SpellE><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Aethelred</span></span><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'> died in exile in Normandy.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He was the brother-in-law of the duke, and his widow Emma extraordinarily married Cnut and returned to England, leaving her son and England's heir Edward with his uncle Normandy.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Cnut and his two sons reigned until 1042, when Prince Edward was recalled from Normandy to ascend the long-awaited English throne.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>He is known as Edward the Confessor, whose shrine is in Westminster Abbey.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>That he died childless in 1066, left an open door to another duke of Normandy - William the Conqueror - who made himself king after the Battle of Hastings.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>In going back long before the events that occupy this history - in an effort to give reasons for those events - we shall also look forward to the present to see if we can discern any strands of behaviour and thought that might be universal.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We are nothing without history and, though we cannot change the past, we can try to learn from it and perhaps change the future.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Can you imagine what it would be like to have no memory earlier than your year of birth?<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We enter a world created by our ancestors.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We need to know about them because we are not just linked to them by flesh, bone, and DNA.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We are linked to them by memory, and without memory, we would be nothing more than a life form of no intellect, no different from an inanimate pebble on the shore.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>I think it is a Polish saying that sums up best what I am trying to convey: with one eye focused on the past, we are blind in one eye; with no eye focused on the past, we are blind in both.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>This blog is really a history documentary, of one hundred and ten episodes, each about 18 minutes long.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>It will make a total of more than 30 hours over two years.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Episodes will appear weekly on the Manorial Society website and on You-Tube, with links to museums, churches, castles, and many others who have helped us without making any charges.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>There is nothing on the internet like it for history in depth.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In the UK, history documentaries of more than one episode are mostly four episodes, and sometimes six.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Some are more travelogue than history.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There will be no historical re-enactment, posing as an excuse for history.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>In our documentary, you will see me some of the time, or I shall be talking over still pictures, maps, and moving footage, that has been specially filmed by experienced friends, who have given me their help freely.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>The music has been written and orchestrated by a talented friend.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>I believe in scene-setting, and I believe in narrative: dates, places, and rulers, if you like.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>We shall meet emperors and kings; popes, bishops, and warlords; pagans, bloody battles, terrible plagues, great wealth, grinding poverty, greedy noblemen and perverse priests, but also men and women of truly wondrous worth and commitment.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>My opinions will be relentless, and I shall pick out the strands that I think still resonate today.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>You might disagree, or think of other strands that I have not.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>There will be a redacted forum for your opinions, and we might invite you to take part in a filmed <span class=GramE>discussion<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>or</span> opinion<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>to be run as a supplement.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"'>Copyright Robert Smith, Manorial Society of Great Britain</span></i><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"'><o:p></o:p></span></i></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:12;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; border-bottom:solid windowtext 1.0pt;mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .5pt; padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:13;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:14;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;color:black;background:#FFFFCC'>The Manorial Society of Great Britain Ltd is a Company Limited by Guarantee<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing align=center style='text-align:center'><span style='font-size:13.5pt;color:black;background:#FFFFCC'>Registered in England and Wales No: 3296984</span><b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";mso-fareast-language: EN-GB;mso-no-proof:yes'><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:15;height:16.5pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:16.5pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:16;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes;height:12.0pt'> <td width=821 colspan=5 valign=top style='width:616.1pt;padding:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; height:12.0pt'> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height: normal'><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <![if !supportMisalignedColumns]> <tr height=0> <td width=118 style='border:none'></td> <td width=118 style='border:none'></td> <td width=228 style='border:none'></td> <td width=10 style='border:none'></td> <td width=256 style='border:none'></td> </tr> <![endif]> </table> </div> <p class=MsoNoSpacing><span style='mso-fareast-language:EN-GB;mso-no-proof: yes'><span style='mso-tab-count:8'> </span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNoSpacing 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